Methods and Criteria for Successful Mangrove Forest Restoration

Methods and Criteria for Successful Mangrove Forest Restoration


This chapter outlines several factors required for successful restoration of mangrove forests: define the watershed and recent changes in hydrology, select the site, define and incorporate clearly stated goals and achievable and measurable criteria of success, initiate a monitoring program, and correct as necessary. Each step of mangrove restoration projects should consciously acknowledge past failures and successes.

Conclusions & Takeaways

Site selection should be guided by the general principle that mangrove forests worldwide exist at the down slope end of coastal drainage basins on a raised and sloped platform above mean sea level which is flooded 30% or less of the time by tidal waters. Based on the established goals (eg improved fish habitat or 20% mangrove survival) uniform sampling methodology at specific time intervals should be developed. The author recommends permanent, haphazard or random plots of 5x5m, at a density that allows for stratified sampling over the elevation gradient. The author stresses that cost-effective hydrologic restoration opportunities should be emphasized over planting.



Hopkinson CS, Wolanski E, Cahoon DR, Perillo GME, Brinson MM. Coastal Wetlands. In: Coastal Wetlands. Coastal Wetlands. Elsevier; 2019:1–75. doi:10.1016/b978-0-444-63893-9.00001-0.


  • Coastal Resources Group, Inc., Salt Springs, FL, USA