Shade trees reduce the stress of coffee (Coffea spp.) and cacao (Theobroma cacao) by ameliorating adverse climatic conditions and nutritional imbalances and increase the biodiversity of coffee farms, but they may also compete for growth resources. This review summarizes the literature on ecological aspects of shade-grown coffee and cacao and on management of shade trees, but does not address economic and social aspects of shade-grown coffee and cacao.
Available with subscription or purchase
This article presents research on coffee stand structure and diversity, with data collected from 61 coffee plots in Chiapas, Mexico.
Research Goals & Methods
The following variables were measured: coffee density, slope, plot aspect, the number of individuals of each shade species (divided into 9 diametric classes), number of strata, species use, and presence of woody plant species.
Open access copy available