Shade management in coffee and cacao plantations


Shade trees reduce the stress of coffee (Coffea spp.) and cacao (Theobroma cacao) by ameliorating adverse climatic conditions and nutritional imbalances and increase the biodiversity of coffee farms, but they may also compete for growth resources. This review summarizes the literature on ecological aspects of shade-grown coffee and cacao and on management of shade trees, but does not address economic and social aspects of shade-grown coffee and cacao.

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The Lembo System: A Model for Agroforestry in Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems of East Kalimantan


This article describes the Lembo system of agroforestry, a traditional practice by the Dayak people in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. In Lembo gardens, around 127 species of woody plants are cultivated, and up to 40 different species can be found per 0.25 ha 90% of which are trees. In those gardens, there is also a large diversity of wild, uncultivated plants.

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