Insect-mediated services such as pollination and pest control are important for agriculture. Nearly 75% of the worlds’ crops depend on animal pollination. Overuse of pesticide impacting the health of agricultural landscapes and animal species is a growing concern. Integrated pest and pollinator management (IPPM) co-manages pollination and pest control with preventative and biodiversity-based practices. However, IPPM is newly conceptualized and remains mostly theoretical.
Available with subscription or purchase
This article discusses the benefits of shade systems in the production of cacao and coffee crops, with a particular focus on the long-term cycle of cacao production.
Open access copy available