Planting native tree seedlings is the predominant restoration strategy for accelerating forest succession on degraded lands. However, planting tree “islands” is less costly and labor intensive than establishing larger plantations and simulates the nucleation process of succession. Tree islands can attract seed dispersers to gradually spread restoration patterns from the islands. Restoration design can be informed by assessing the effect of potential planting arrangements on seed dispersal by birds and bats and determining the influence of surrounding forest cover.
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