East Asia and Pacific

Potential for low-cost carbon removal through tropical reforestation

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The UNFCCC COP21 (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties) created the Paris Agreement in 2015, which pledges to “limit global warming to well below 2, preferably 1.5 °C.” For this to happen, we must both reduce how much carbon dioxide (CO2) that is released and find ways to capture CO2 that is already in the atmosphere. This study explores two ways this might happen using Nature-based Solutions: tree planting in the form of reforestation and afforestation, and the prevention of deforestation. 

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Afforestation and reforestation programs in South and South East Asia under the Clean Development Mechanism: Trends and development opportunities

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Forest plantations and climate change discourses: New powers of ‘green’ grabbing in Cambodia

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Forestry-based emissions reduction programs are increasingly being presented as a solution to climate change. Technical experts argue that keeping existing forests standing and creating new forests can help remove carbon emissions. However, several researchers point to a gap between the stated objectives of these programs and their biophysical and unintended socioeconomic outcomes. For example, some negative socioeconomic outcomes may include the displacement of local communities or the loss of customary common land. This paper studies the socioeconomic impacts of Cambodia’s first large scale reforestation project for climate change mitigation.

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Context in land matters: The effects of history on land formalizations

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Land formalization is the process by which governments grant legal rights to land, along with responsibilities and conditions of access through land titles and other official documents. This process typically establishes or re-establishes the authority of the state over the governance of land. This paper draws on examples from Africa and Asia to illustrate how land formalization has differing impacts on a diverse set of claimants, and largely increases inequity.

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Tree planting is not a simple solution

BACKGROUND

Tree planting has been identified as a panacea for environmental problems leading to the initiation of large- scale reforestation projects by governments and non- profit organizations. Many of the top- down reforestation projects have failed and have not been properly done, resulting in negative outcomes e.g., destruction of native grasslands in the savannas, increased social inequity among smallholders and dispossessing the local people.

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Maximizing Seed Resources for Restoration in an Uncertain Future

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Forest loss is being experienced in many parts of the globe. Seed based plant restoration is now the goal of many land management agencies. There is a growing demand for seed to meet these restoration projects. The effects of climate change on seed availability, viability and the success of these restoration projects is still unknown.

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Fairly efficient, efficiently fair: Lessons from designing and testing payment schemes for ecosystem services in Asia

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Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) is defined as a market-based approach yet the authors argue that it cannot be generalized or implements and often suffers due to the commoditization of these services.

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Safety Nets, Gap Filling and Forests: A Global-Comparative Perspective

BACKGROUND

This paper seeks to prove how forests and wildlands are utilized in developing countries as safety nets to shocks, and how they provide resources for seasonal gap filling. The study was carried out in various developing countries in different continents. Areas where there is no forest at all were excluded and those completely forest covered such as those dominated by hunter- gatherers were not considered.

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Addressing Slow Onset Disasters: Lessons from the 2015-2016 El Niño in the Philippines

BACKGROUND

The Philippines as an archipelagic country is prone to climate-induced extreme weather events. However, it is also one of the countries in Asia and in the tropical Pacific Ocean that experiences the effects of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a slow onset event. The current disaster risk reduction (DRR) system is focused on rapid onset events such as typhoons and storm surges. This chapter discusses the impacts of ENSO on farmers and fisher folks and how the gaps in disaster risk reduction governance for slow onset events has exposed the need to develop new protocols to address these slow onset disasters.

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Restoring Forests For Communities, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services

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This publication summarizes the proceedings of a 2011 conference held in Bogor, Indonesia titled "Restoring Forests For Communities, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services". The aim of the conference was to provide a space in which forest restoration approaches used in Indonesia and elsewhere in Southeast Asia were shared and discussed. The report includes summaries of the opening and closing remarks along with the conference's seven presentations. 

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