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Restoration of plant species and genetic diversity depends on landscape‐scale dispersal

Introduction

The article cites the importance of restoration efforts that leads to resilient, self-sustaining ecosystems in order to combat immense global change. Though biological and species diversity are key to this venture, they are rarely considered a factor. Thus, this review article highlights the connection between seed dispersal and species richness and diversity to landscape restoration. 

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Multiple successional pathways in human-modified tropical landscapes: new insights from forest succession, forest fragmentation and landscape ecology research

Introduction

With the rise of deforestation, secondary forests and human-modified tropical landscapes (HMTL) have become an important source of ecosystem services yet there is limited knowledge concerning the successional process of these ecosystems. 

Goals & Methods

The goal of this study is to identify the main drivers of successional pathways In HTML and secondary forests at multiple scales. The authors draw on tropical forest succesion, forest fragmentation, and landscape ecology research to achieve this. 

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Traditional agroforestry practices in Zimbabwe

BACKGROUND

There has been little attention being given to the significance of trees in household economies of Zimbabwe. Most focus has been on crops, livestock, softwood species of trees in commercial plantations and indigenous species that under state management. Extension officers used to encourage people to remove trees from arable land. However, after the country’s independence a Rural Afforestation Program was established resulting in agroforestry engagements.

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Co-management options for reserved forests in Zimbabwe and beyond: Policy implications of forest management strategies

BACKGROUND

After the year 2000 land reform program in Zimbabwe, some peasants began to take advantage of the land reform impetus to squat on forests even though the State had attempted to preserve all conservation areas from land resettlement. Ever since, there have been conflicts between the state and the people living around forests. Co management or joint management initiatives were introduced to try to solve these People- State Relations.

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Management of non-timber forestry products extraction: Local institutions, ecological knowledge and market structure in South-Eastern Zimbabwe

BACKGROUND

Sengwe communal lands, in South East Zimbabwe were used to examine how they manage non timber forest products (NTFPs) as a common pool resource in that area. The area consists of five wards, of which four are communally owned. The government has a protected area engulfed by the local communal property system; both communal and state property regimes are involved in the management of certain resources.

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Fires in exotic forest plantations of Zimbabwe: Causes and management strategies

BACKGROUND

Of the 201,704-ha allocated to plantation forestry in Zimbabwe, 95,754-ha is usable. Forest plantations are mainly composed of Eucalyptus, Wattle and Pine. The dominant species grown are Pinus patula, P. taeda, E. grandis and Acacia mearnsii. Revenue is generated from timber exports. Forest fires are the major contributors of significant financial losses in these commercial plantations. Hence this article examines the causes of these fires and possible strategies for mitigating these anthropogenic fires.

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Growth of native tree species planted in montane reforestation projects in the Colombian and Ecuadorian Andes differs among site and species

BACKGROUND

Tropical Andes in Columbia and Ecuador have been affected by forest clearance and degradation for several centuries. Agriculture has been the primary driver of land use change as well as mining to a lesser extent. To restore the degraded sites, native species have been used in various projects, however with little information on growth performance of the planted tree species in relation to site and soil nutrient status. A greater part of the northern Andes has volcanic ash derived soils.

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Building Community Capacity in Fragile Environments: Case Study of the Mara Serengeti Ecosystem

BACKGROUND

People living in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) bear the brunt of climate change impacts. As traditional pastoralists, the main challenge for the people of the Mara Serengeti Ecosystem is to cope with an increasingly frequent and recurrent drought pushing them further to competition for resources and livestock loss from starvation. Thus, there is a need to create opportunities in building up community capacity and resilience in these fragile environments.

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Climate Change and Variability in the Mixed Crop/Livestock Production Systems of Central Ethiopian Highland

BACKGROUND

Using a 60-year weather data, this chapter establishes the realities of climate change impacts in the Central Ethiopian Highland. It also explores the adaptive responses of teff and wheat, the two major food crops in the said locality. With a population of 100 million (as of 2018), Ethiopia faces increased levels of food insecurity. The study measured farmers’ perception of climate change and more importantly, their adaptation measures, and proposes four mitigation options for Ethiopia to cope with climate change related shocks exacerbated by population pressure.

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Impact of Forest Management on Insect Abundance and Damage in a Lowland Tropical Forest in Southern Cameroon

Background

A burgeoning timber industry in Cameroon, which became the fifth largest producer of timber in the world in the 1990’s, led to unsustainably high deforestation rates and high demand for forest regeneration interventions. Research in the Mbalmayo Forest Reserve in southern Cameroon has compared different silvicultural techniques for forest regeneration including complete and partial clearance methods.

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