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Building Pastoral and Agro-Pastoral Community Resilience Against Drought in the Context of the Paris Agreement: The Case of Isiolo County, Kenya

BACKGROUND

Under the Paris Agreement, countries that are party to the negotiations are obliged to meet its National Determined Contributions (NDC). Kenya, a member state of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change or UNFCCC, has made strides in the climate change arena, keeping up with its NDCs and establishing climate change legislation and policy measures. This chapter provides insights on how resilience building amidst the climate-change induced droughts is possible through multi-stakeholder collaboration between pastoral and agro-pastoral communities, county and the national government.

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Pest Management in Tropical Forestry

Background

This chapter of the Tropical Forestry Handbook introduces common pests, diseases, and disorders known to afflict tropical tree species. It describes methods of transmission, common symptoms, and provides visual guides on disease identification including infection manifestations in different parts of the tree. The chapter concludes with a discussion on disease management strategies including avoidance, control, and elimination highlighting the environmental factors that play into these strategies.

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Restoration of Ecosystem Carbon Stocks following Exclosure Establisment in Communal Grazing Lands in Tigray, Ethiopia

Background

The study examines changes in ecosystem Carbon stocks (ECS) after the establishment of exclosures on communal grazing lands.  Exclosures are areas where livestock are prohibited from grazing. 

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Factors Affecting Mortality and Resistance to Damage Following Hurricanes in a Rehabilitated Subtropical Moist Forest

Background

This study was conducted in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF), which was previously abandoned pastureland reforested through mixed planting and natural regeneration.

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Screening of native plant species for phytoremediation potential at a Hg-contaminated mining site

Background

This study was conducted in one of the most important Artisanal and small-scale (ASGM) gold-mining sites in Colombia, to identify native plant species growing in Mercury contaminated soils used for agricultural purposes, and to assess their potential as phytoremediation systems.

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Microhabitats reduce animal’s exposure to climate extremes

Background

The Scheffers et al. (2014) paper discusses the effect of microhabitats and their corresponding microclimates on ectotherm species in a warming macroclimate. 

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Asymmetric density dependence shapes species abundances in a tropical tree community

Background

This study examined the question: why are some species common in tropical rainforests while others are rare?

Goals & Methods

The research, which used a computer modeling approach to analyze data from 20,000 1-meter squared plots, examined the degree to which being close to another individual of the same species affected the studied individual's overall abundance.

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Mangrove recruitment after forest disturbance is facilitated by herbaceous species in the Caribbean

Background

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On the hope for biodiversity-friendly tropical landscapes

Background

As pristine tropical forests get harder to preserve, much expectation has been allocated to the conservation of ecosystem services and biodiversity into Human-modified landscales (HMLs). However, it has not been fully assessed to what degree HMLs are able to sustain ecosystem services and what management practices can enhance biodiversity conservatoin in them.

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Bioremediation of a crude-oil polluted agricultural-soil at Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Background

Since more than 98% of Nigeria’s current economic support is crude oil, and oil spills are in inevitable and frequent, six treatment sample-cell were tested on the soils of the Niger Delta of Nigeria for crude oil bioremediation. Oil spills cause nitrogen levels to decrease, while increasing carbon content. A decrease in nitrogen and the toxicity of crude oil reduces the growth of heterotrophic bacteria, which utilize petroleum carbon for cell synthesis.

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