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Safeguarding sloths and anteaters in the future: Priority areas for conservation under climate change

Background

Sloths and anteaters come from the order Pilosa which has very little species richness and a high rate of species loss in recent years, making this order highly vulnerable to extinction. This order is distributed endemically in the Neotropics. Conservation concerns are high due to the high levels of habitat fragmentation and loss in Neotropical landscapes and conservation areas need to be prioritized to ensure Pilosa species survival.

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Active restoration of secondary and degraded forests in the context of the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration

Background

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Overcoming biotic homogenization in ecological restoration

Background

Regional, or gamma, diversity is often lower in restored landscapes compared to reference landscapes due to the selection of few desirable species for planting. Lowered diversity in restored landscapes is leading to overall biotic homogenization which puts ecosystems and humans in a more vulnerable position for adapting to environmental changes.

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Spatial density patterns of herbivore response to seasonal dynamics in the tropical deciduous forest of central India

Background

Strong seasonality of dry tropical forests causes variations in vegetation and therefore food resources for animals. This study investigates the seasonal distribution patterns between summer and winter of four ungulate species (Rusa unicolor, Axis axis, Bocephalus tragocamelus, and Sus scrofa) in the Panna Tiger Reserve in India. Ungulates tend to gravitate towards areas that are cooler with more vegetation, and at higher elevations.

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Effects of plant species richness on the structure of plant-bird interaction networks along a 3000-m elevational gradient in subtropical forests

Background

The structure and diversity of ecological communities is shaped by symbiotic plant and animal relationships. Some birds feed on fleshy fruit producing plants to disperse seeds and facilitate plant reproduction. Bird seed-dispersal networks are plant-animal assemblages that change with environmental conditions. Species richness and species specialization interact with elevation to result in unique assemblages. In this study, the authors examine how plant and bird interactions change with plant species richness along a 3000-meter gradient in a subtropical forest in China.

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Multiple invasions exert combined magnified effects on native plants, soil nutrients and alters the plant-herbivore interaction in dry tropical forest

Background

Globalization has resulted in a higher number of species invasions, which have had detrimental impacts on ecosystem biodiversity, functions, and services. Assessment and management of all invasive species is based on knowledge of a small number of species. Management is also focused on single-species invasions rather than multiple simultaneous invasions. India has a high level of species invasions and minimal resources to control them.

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Towards integrated pest and pollinator management in tropical crops

Background

Insect-mediated services such as pollination and pest control are important for agriculture. Nearly 75% of the worlds’ crops depend on animal pollination. Overuse of pesticide impacting the health of agricultural landscapes and animal species is a growing concern. Integrated pest and pollinator management (IPPM) co-manages pollination and pest control with preventative and biodiversity-based practices. However, IPPM is newly conceptualized and remains mostly theoretical.

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Out of steady state: Tracking canopy gap dynamics across Brazilian Amazon

Background

Canopy gaps are a regular characteristic of natural or anthropogenic disturbance in forested landscapes. Gap-creating disturbances often result in a forest mosaic with patches of varying successional stages. Many species in tropical forests depend on these canopy gaps for regeneration. Field monitoring of canopy gaps can be difficult due to time constraints and plot size, making tropical gap dynamics an understudied topic.

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Controlling invasive plant species in ecological restoration: A global review

Background

Invasive plant species are known to impede the growth and establishment of many native plant species while influencing other ecosystem features such as soil properties, fire regimes, hydrology, and human well-being. This article presents the findings of a literature review of 372 articles to better understand the impact of invasive species and control methods to highlight gaps in overall knowledge of the topic.

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Selecting tree species to restore forest under climate change conditions: Complementing species distribution models with field experimentation

Background

Climate-based species distribution models are used as a strategy to decide on optimal tree species for forest restoration projects. The criteria in these models is based on species performance in local climates. The limitation of species distribution models is that they do not include recruitment. Including the species successful reproduction, recruitment and growth at an early stage is vital for successful reforestation efforts. In addition, the models are not calibrated to take into account future climatic conditions, making it difficult to plan long-term restoration projects.

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