Human Ecological Questions for Tropical Restoration: Experiences from Planting Native Upland Trees and Mangroves in the Philippines
This article evaluates the human ecology of reforestation in the Philippines under the Bais Bay Development Action Program. Reforestation is considered in upland riparian as well as coastal mangrove areas.
Goals & Method
The goal of this study is to understand the shortcomings and potential barriers of including social science input in reforestation efforts. To do so, the article first explores the connection between human ecology and tropical reforestation. It then uses a case study, examining the experiences of individuals involved in the Bais Bay Development Action Program.
Conclusions & Takeaways
The most successful restoration efforts possessed committed participants with technical skills, as well as community support. Although there was variance in the villages' success, intensive group training and community promotion proved more successful that mere training of village leaders. Similarly, mangrove planting proved more successful when the social organization of the community was taken into consideration. The author provides a checklist of questions that should be used to guide restoration efforts. These questions address 1) economic impacts, 2) land-use, resource management, and tenure, 3) local knowledge, skills, and customs, 4) local social organization and institutions, 5) government administration, policies and capacities.
Human ecological questions for tropical restoration: experiences from planting native upland trees and mangroves in the Philippines. Forest Ecology and Management. 1997;99:275–290. doi:10.1016/s0378-1127(97)00211-9..
- Department of Human Ecology and Graduate Program in Ecology and Evolution, Cook College, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA