Governance

Developing a framework for sustainable development indicators for the mining and minerals industry

BACKGROUND:

Minerals are essential to a variety of industries that help in everyday life. However, the extraction of minerals is often associated with numerous negative environmental impacts. The mining industry is responsible for more pressing sustainability challenges than any other industry. The mining industry must address these challenges by addressing the concerns of different stakeholders, as demonstrated by the Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development project.

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An overview of forest loss and restoration in the Brazilian Amazon

Background:

The accelerated process of forest loss and degradation in the Brazilian Amazon began in the 1970s due to government-promoted economic development initiatives. This led to significant deforestation, with approximately 20% (780,967 km2) of the region being affected . Nevertheless, the region still lacks scientific studies that reinforce the choice of best practices for forest restoration, and the information currently available is not enough to quantify what has already been recovered or the potential area to be restored.

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Slowing Amazon Deforestation through Public Policy and Interventions in Beef and Soy Supply Chains

Background:

The process of deforestation, involving the extensive removal of mature forest, witnessed a notable decline, plummeting from a 10-year average of 19,500 km2 up to 2005 to 5843 in 2013—a remarkable 70% reduction. This reduction is believed to have initiated a chain reaction of positive consequences, including a diminished risk of regional rainfall inhibition, fewer alterations in river discharge and sedimentation, and an upswing in biodiversity conservation.

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Ten principles for restoring campo rupestre, a threatened tropical, megadiverse, nutrient-impoverished montane grassland

Background

In the U.N. Decade on Ecosystem Restoration, one of the most overlooked ecosystem types is tropical grasslands. Studies on these ecosystems are lacking, as are the foundations for restoration. These foundational points of policy, practice, and governance in addition to science need to be addressed. The authors provide 10 principles to restore the campo rupestre, a tropical grassland that is threatened by human activities including mining.

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Tropical Forest Landscape Restoration in Indonesia: A Review

Background

Indonesia has an exceptionally high amount of biodiversity and endemic species. As the timber industry has grown, deforestation and degradation drive biodiversity loss, air pollution, deteriorating water quality, and greater emissions. Restoration projects and policies are in place to balance ecological health and human livelihood across landscapes like the ones in Indonesia. Restoration projects are particularly complex in Indonesia due to land tenure clarity issues, disorganized institution, and other social aspects. The authors review forested landscape restoration progress in Indonesia and examines inhibiting factors in institution and policy as well as indicators of restoration benefits.

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A standard framework for assessing the costs and benefits of restoration: introducing The Economics of Ecosystem Restoration

Background

Policy behind restoration projects and efforts is stronger than ever before, however the funding and financial structure to keep these efforts going is drastically underdeveloped. Ecological restoration finance is not usually in the expertise of restoration practitioners and communities, thus requiring those people to bring in someone with that expertise for aid. The authors emphasize that restoration projects are long-term investments and therefore a better financial understanding is needed to properly plan and execute those projects. Better understanding the costs and benefits of restoration will help gain easier access to financial support.

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Ecosystem restoration job creation potential in Brazil

Background

Ecosystem restoration is recognized globally for its environmental benefits. Other benefits from ecosystem restoration such as job creation may be of high interest to key stakeholders. The leverage of job creation may motivate additional investments and long-term commitment from stakeholders into restoration projects.

Goals and Methods

The authors aim to assess ecosystem restoration jobs in Brazil based on an online survey. Job structure, distribution, and abundance are measured. In total, the authors analyze results from 356 organizations’ responses covering almost the entirety of Brazilian estates.

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Safeguarding sloths and anteaters in the future: Priority areas for conservation under climate change

Background

Sloths and anteaters come from the order Pilosa which has very little species richness and a high rate of species loss in recent years, making this order highly vulnerable to extinction. This order is distributed endemically in the Neotropics. Conservation concerns are high due to the high levels of habitat fragmentation and loss in Neotropical landscapes and conservation areas need to be prioritized to ensure Pilosa species survival.

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Spatial density patterns of herbivore response to seasonal dynamics in the tropical deciduous forest of central India

Background

Strong seasonality of dry tropical forests causes variations in vegetation and therefore food resources for animals. This study investigates the seasonal distribution patterns between summer and winter of four ungulate species (Rusa unicolor, Axis axis, Bocephalus tragocamelus, and Sus scrofa) in the Panna Tiger Reserve in India. Ungulates tend to gravitate towards areas that are cooler with more vegetation, and at higher elevations.

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A cautionary note for forest landscape restoration in drylands: cattle production systems in northwest Madagascar’s dry forests

BACKGROUND

It is evident that land tenure security is crucial for successful restoration. Unfortunately, in Madagascar, dry forests are considered unoccupied and unowned even when communities have long-established claims under customary tenure systems. The authors stated that collective tenure recognition efforts were underway in Madagascar, but limited knowledge of agropastoralist cattle production strategies impeded the efforts to develop tenure reforms. The authors examined how cattle raisers in the Boney Region in northwest Madagascar organize pastoral spaces and cattle production strategies in the area’s dry forest.

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