Governance

The political ecology playbook for ecosystem restoration: Principles for effective, equitable, and transformative landscapes

Background

Globally, land degradation and forest loss continue despite an increasing number of projects working towards ecological restoration. The authors of this paper argue that one of the reasons that restoration projects have been unable to achieve their goals and ensure ecological resilience is that they ignore the underlying issues of political inequity and injustice that drive ecological degradation.

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Grey areas in green grabbing: subtle and indirect interconnections between climate change politics and land grabs and their implications for research

Background

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Green Grabbing: a new appropriation of nature?

Background

The authors introduce a set of papers which collectively discuss discourses and processes surrounding the transfer of ownership, user rights, or control over land and resources to meet environmental goals such as the production of biofuels or carbon sequestration, dispossessing some of their land while contributing to increasing the accumulation of property for others. The papers were originally presented at the International Conference on Global Land Grabbing and contribute to existing debates around land grabbing by building on the concept of ‘green grabbing’, wherein the appropriation of land is justified on environmental grounds.

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The tragedy of the commons

Background

Written in the late 1960s, this paper suggests that over population is a major challenge for continued human well-being, and especially for the management of commons. It uses examples of over-grazing in common lands and pollution management to argue that individuals are likely to look out for their own interest and continue to use common resources or pollute them acting as though they were available infinitely. While this tendency does not have negative consequences when the population is low, it can make resource management more challenging as the population increases.

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Context in land matters: The effects of history on land formalizations

Background

Land formalization is the process by which governments grant legal rights to land, along with responsibilities and conditions of access through land titles and other official documents. This process typically establishes or re-establishes the authority of the state over the governance of land. This paper draws on examples from Africa and Asia to illustrate how land formalization has differing impacts on a diverse set of claimants, and largely increases inequity.

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Adopt a carbon tax to protect tropical forests

Background

The authors states that the halting of deforestation is critical to addressing climate change and biodiversity loss, the investment in conservation is lacking. Thus, they call upon countries through out the tropics to adopt a carbon tax, which would serve as a disincentive for companies to continue deforestation.

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La restauración de bosques andinos tropicales: Avances, desafíos y perspectivas del futuro

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Antecedentes

La degradación ambiental y la pérdida de biodiversidad ponen en riesgo los medios de vida de habitantes de países andinos  tropicales. Respondiendo a esta amenaza, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú y Bolivia han definido metas cuantitativas de restauración ecológica y consecuentemente formulado programas para alcanzar estas metas. No obstante, esto ha presentado retos de distintas magnitudes variando de país en país.

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Addressing Slow Onset Disasters: Lessons from the 2015-2016 El Niño in the Philippines

BACKGROUND

The Philippines as an archipelagic country is prone to climate-induced extreme weather events. However, it is also one of the countries in Asia and in the tropical Pacific Ocean that experiences the effects of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a slow onset event. The current disaster risk reduction (DRR) system is focused on rapid onset events such as typhoons and storm surges. This chapter discusses the impacts of ENSO on farmers and fisher folks and how the gaps in disaster risk reduction governance for slow onset events has exposed the need to develop new protocols to address these slow onset disasters.

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Building Pastoral and Agro-Pastoral Community Resilience Against Drought in the Context of the Paris Agreement: The Case of Isiolo County, Kenya

BACKGROUND

Under the Paris Agreement, countries that are party to the negotiations are obliged to meet its National Determined Contributions (NDC). Kenya, a member state of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change or UNFCCC, has made strides in the climate change arena, keeping up with its NDCs and establishing climate change legislation and policy measures. This chapter provides insights on how resilience building amidst the climate-change induced droughts is possible through multi-stakeholder collaboration between pastoral and agro-pastoral communities, county and the national government.

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Mainstreaming Native Species-Based Forest Restoration

Background

This publication summarizes the proceedings of a 2010 conference held in the Phillipines titled "Mainstreaming Native Species-Based Forest Restoration", which aimed to provide technical expertise and experience with restoration and reforestation practices for tropical forests in order to address the country's forest cover decline. The report summarizes the events of the two days, including two opening remarks, six presentations, and five panels. 

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