Performance of 45 Native Tree Species on Degraded Lands in Singapore
This paper evaluates research on the reforestation potential of 45 native tree species in Singapore, with a specific focus on identifying species that can quickly form a closed canopy.
Research Goals & Methods
Annual growth rate and survival was calculated for saplings (total 1640) planted between 1999 and 2004 on seven different sites, 3 dry, 2 average, 2 wet.
Conclusions & Takeaways
Survival was high (over 90%) for most species, which the authors attribute to the large initial planting size (1cm DBH, 1.5m height). Some species demonstrated differences in growth between sites. For example, Sandoricum koetjape had significantly greater growth rates on a dry hill site with full sun, Pometia pinnata (naturally found on riversides) had significantly greater growth rates on a wet site, and Syzygium polyanthum had no site preference. Parkia speciosa, a legume, had the highest mean annual diameter (2.32 cm/yr)and height growth (212.5 cm/yr) of the 45 species, followed by Cratoxylum cochinchinense (1.96 cm dbh and 154.3 cm height per year). Among dipterocarps, Dipterocarpus caudatus and Hopea nutans had the highest growth rate (1.21 cm DBH and 1.14 cm DBH per year, respectively). Among secondary growth species, Elaeocarpus mastersii had the highest growth rate (1.75cm DBH and 165.4 cm height per year). Several additional dipterocarps, legumes, secondary forest species, and other species demonstrated average to favorable performance. The authors found that Strombosia javanica, Shorea ovalis, Shorea macroptera, Rhodamnia cinerea, Alstonia angustiloba, Pouteria obovata, Aquilaria malaccensis, Gonystylus confusus and Lepisanthes rubiginosa grew too slowly and would be unsuitable for reforestation.
Shono, K., Davies, S.J. and Chua, Y.K. 2007. Performance of 45 Native Tree Species on Degraded Lands in Singapore. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 19(1): 25-34.
- Center for Tropical Forest Science - Arnold Arboretum Asia Program, Singapore
- National Parks Board of Singapore, Singapore