Review Article

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+): game changer or just another quick fix?

BACKGROUND

The article provides an extensive review of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) in terms of its promise of multiple co-benefits as well as the various challenges it faces in its implementation. It features the Norway-Indonesia REDD+ as the most recent case study and examines whether it holds true to its name as a breakthrough mechanism in reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) build-up in the atmosphere primarily due to the unabated carbon emissions and tropical deforestation.

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Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) in Latin America: Analysing the performance of 40 case studies

Background

Payment of Ecosystem Services (PES), which encourages landowners improve land management through market incentives, has been implemented around the world since the 1990s. This high investment requires an analysis of PES schemes and their outcomes.

Goals & Methods

The goal of the paper is to inform policy and provide decisions makers with insights on PES in order to aid in future design and ensure the success of initiatives. To do this, the authors review 40 cases of PES throughout Latin America based on a consistent set of criteria.

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Have integrated landscape approaches reconciled societal and environmental issues in the tropics?

Background

The author cite that while there has been growing recognition of intergrated landscape approaches, which aims to enhance environmental and social outcomes, there is still a lack of understanding. There has been suggestions that these approaches have been undertherorized and a lack of evidence of its effectiveness.

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Vulnerability of smallholder farmers to climate change in Central America and Mexico: current knowledge and research gaps

Background

This article recognizes that smallholder farmers are both critical to the global agricultural sector yet are one of the most vulnerable populations to climate change. Specifically, farmers in Central America and Mexico are experiences particularly high threats, thus the authors focus on this subgroup.

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Forests as safety nets for mitigating the impacts of HIV/AIDS in southern Africa

BACKGROUND

70% of the people infected with HIV/AIDS are in Southern Africa, and the disease is perpetrating the already existing poverty in the continent. The impacts of the disease have led to livelihood change, as more funds in households are channeled to health care. To cater for these pressures and shocks households can resort to the use of forest products and in trading them to generate income. Some families have begun to rely on traditional remedies due to their low cost.

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Contributions of agroforestry to ecosystem services in the miombo eco-region of eastern and southern Africa

BACKGROUND

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Garden Plants in Zimbabwe: Their ethnomedicinal uses and reported toxicity

BACKGROUND

In Zimbabwe, there are several plants that have been grown in homes for primary survival and for aesthetic reasons, both exotic and indigenous species. The properties of some of these plants is unknown yet some have been discovered to be poisonous to humans and livestock. Some cases of plant poison have been accidental, hence there is need to protect the public from the toxicity of these plants.

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Revisiting IPCC Tier 1 coefficients for soil organic and biomass carbon storage in agroforestry systems

Introduction

While agroforestry systems cover a signifcant amount of land worldwide and have the capacity to sequester large amounts of carbon, they are often not considered in climate change mitigation. Most importantly, the IPCCC does not recognize them in carbon accounting primarily because there is so much diversity in the systems. 

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Beyond the species pool: modification of species dispersal, establishment, and assembly by habitat restoration

Introduction

This article asserts that understanding the forces that shape species composition in plant communities, including seed dispersal, establishment, and assembly, is critical to restoration. Serving as an introduction to a special issue on seed dispersal and soil seed banks, the article reviews five major themes in relation to the process of species composition of plants. 

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Restoration of plant species and genetic diversity depends on landscape‐scale dispersal

Introduction

The article cites the importance of restoration efforts that leads to resilient, self-sustaining ecosystems in order to combat immense global change. Though biological and species diversity are key to this venture, they are rarely considered a factor. Thus, this review article highlights the connection between seed dispersal and species richness and diversity to landscape restoration. 

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