Review Article

Introduction to the Special Issue on “Interdisciplinarity in Geography Educational Experiences Abroad”

Background

The authors provide an overview of the articles in a special issue of the journal The Geography Teacher on interdisciplinarity in geography study abroad programs.

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Cash for conservation: Do payments for ecosystem services work?

Background

Payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs make payments to land owners for the ecosystem services such as clean water or carbon storage that their land provides to create incentives to protect the land. One of the objectives of these projects is to promote local economic development along with conservation outcomes. Researchers have sought to critically assess the assumptions behind these programs and their implementation.

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Payments for ecosystem services and the fatal attraction of win-win solutions

Background

Payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs involve valuing and paying stewards of ecosystems for the services that these ecosystems create incentives for conserving them. These programs are sometimes characterized as ‘win-win’ solutions, with the potential to contribute to both biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction. The authors of this paper review the literature on PES programs and highlight some challenges of implementing them.

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The global status and trends of Payments for Ecosystem Services

Background

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Payments for Ecosystem Services: Rife with Problems and Potential—For Transformation Towards Sustainability

Background

Payments for ecosystem services (PES) are monetary or in-kind payments that are made to land owners or stewards for the ‘services’ that their land provides such as fresh water, climate regulation, and soil formation. These payments are meant to act as an incentive to protect natural landscapes. Research on PES interventions has increased substantially from 2000 onwards. For example, the authors of this study found that there were 13 google scholar search results for “payments for ecosystem services” published before 2000, 182 results for studies published between 2001 and 2006, and 6830 results for studies published between 2007 and 2015.

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Designing optimal human-modified landscapes for forest biodiversity conservation

Introduction

Current land-use patterns have resulted in the rapid conversion of forests to human modified forest landscapes (HMFLs). This degradation of forest landscapes can threaten species diversity and disrupt the ecological functions and services they provide. As such, designing and implementing effective landscape conservation strategies that benefit biodiversity as well as promote human well-being is essential.

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The Effectiveness of Payments for Environmental Services

Background

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Understanding the value and limitations of nature-based solutions to climate change and other global challenges

background

Nature-based Solutions (NbS) are initiatives that work with nature to adapt to environmental and climate challenges. NbS have grown in popularity in recent years, and are generally seen as a promising way to address the effects of climate change. Nature-based Solutions are also seen as a way to help countries achieve their Nationally-Determined Contributions (NDCs). Outlined by the UN Paris Agreement in 2016, NDCs are nations’ individual pledges to reduce CO2 emissions and adapt to climate change.

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A systematic review of the socio-economic impacts of large-scale tree plantations, worldwide

Background

Large-scale tree plantations can provide raw material for industries and support climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. However, they can have positive and negative ecological and socioeconomic impacts. This paper presents the findings on a systematic review of literature on the socioeconomic impacts of large-scale tree plantations.

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Pitfalls of tree planting show why we need people-centered natural climate solutions

Background

Tree planting campaigns are promoted as a solution to climate change, because of the ability of trees to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. However, research from the social and natural sciences suggests that tree plantations could have potentially negative consequences for people and ecosystems. In addition to failing to meet ecological targets, plantations can also lead to land alienation and the loss of livelihoods for communities. This paper discusses misconceptions about tree plantations.

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