Review Article

Forests, atmospheric water and an uncertain future: the new biology of the global water cycle

Introduction 

This article provides a review of the connection between vegetation cover and climate, with a specifical focus on forests and rain. The author details how there are shortcomings in knowledge concerning how tree cover influences water-cycles, which are both highly complex and important. In order to direct readers to potential research opportunities in this field, the article highIights advances and uncertainties in this field through reviewing it's major research themes. 

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Multiple successional pathways in human-modified tropical landscapes: new insights from forest succession, forest fragmentation and landscape ecology research

Introduction

With the rise of deforestation, secondary forests and human-modified tropical landscapes (HMTL) have become an important source of ecosystem services yet there is limited knowledge concerning the successional process of these ecosystems. 

Goals & Methods

The goal of this study is to identify the main drivers of successional pathways In HTML and secondary forests at multiple scales. The authors draw on tropical forest succesion, forest fragmentation, and landscape ecology research to achieve this. 

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Nucleation in tropical ecological restoration

background

Due to centuraries of human development, there is a need to restore degraded areas and reconcile productive uses of land with conservation goals. One means of ecological restoration is facilitation, which aims to accrue positive interactions between species. Nucleation has been shown as a effective stategy for facilitation. 

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Traditional agroforestry practices in Zimbabwe

BACKGROUND

There has been little attention being given to the significance of trees in household economies of Zimbabwe. Most focus has been on crops, livestock, softwood species of trees in commercial plantations and indigenous species that under state management. Extension officers used to encourage people to remove trees from arable land. However, after the country’s independence a Rural Afforestation Program was established resulting in agroforestry engagements.

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Co-management options for reserved forests in Zimbabwe and beyond: Policy implications of forest management strategies

BACKGROUND

After the year 2000 land reform program in Zimbabwe, some peasants began to take advantage of the land reform impetus to squat on forests even though the State had attempted to preserve all conservation areas from land resettlement. Ever since, there have been conflicts between the state and the people living around forests. Co management or joint management initiatives were introduced to try to solve these People- State Relations.

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Fires in exotic forest plantations of Zimbabwe: Causes and management strategies

BACKGROUND

Of the 201,704-ha allocated to plantation forestry in Zimbabwe, 95,754-ha is usable. Forest plantations are mainly composed of Eucalyptus, Wattle and Pine. The dominant species grown are Pinus patula, P. taeda, E. grandis and Acacia mearnsii. Revenue is generated from timber exports. Forest fires are the major contributors of significant financial losses in these commercial plantations. Hence this article examines the causes of these fires and possible strategies for mitigating these anthropogenic fires.

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Core principles for successfully implementing and upscaling Nature-based Solutions

BACKGROUND

The degradation of the natural environment continues to impact on biodiversity, human health and well-being notwithstanding various initiatives to restore ecosystems and conserve the diversity of life within it. Increasing the interface between conservation and sustainable development goals through the Nature-based Solution (NbS) framework show promising results. However, there is a need to address the gaps to effectively implement, assess and upscale NbS programs in different parts of the world

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Carbon farming with bamboos in Africa: A call for action

BACKGROUND

Bamboos are of paramount importance for livelihoods, landscapes, and climate change mitigation. When compared to other regions, little research has been done about bamboo resources in Africa. This is because National Forest Resources Assessments rarely capture the necessary data. Approximately, there are 38 species of woody bamboos native to sub-Saharan Africa including Madagascar with many endemic species. So far, their population is dwindling but if sustainably managed, they can contribute significantly economically and to the environment.

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Safety Nets, Gap Filling and Forests: A Global-Comparative Perspective

BACKGROUND

This paper seeks to prove how forests and wildlands are utilized in developing countries as safety nets to shocks, and how they provide resources for seasonal gap filling. The study was carried out in various developing countries in different continents. Areas where there is no forest at all were excluded and those completely forest covered such as those dominated by hunter- gatherers were not considered.

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Ecosystem-based adaptation for smallholder farmers: Definitions, opportunities and constraints

background

Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) or the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services has been gaining recognition as being a vital part of the overall strategy to help people adapt to the adverse effects of climate change. This study recognizes the importance of EbA in helping smallholder farmers adapt to climate change while providing co-benefits such as livelihood, continued provision of a variety of ecosystem services, and conservation of existing resources.

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