Review Article

Impact of Forest Management on Species Richness: Global Meta-Analysis and Economic Trade-offs

Background

This study is a meta-analysis of data from forests managed for timber harvest to assess the conservation value of these forests. From processing data from 287 published studies they rank the following forest management systems from best to worst in terms of conservation value: selection and retention systems, reduced impact logging, conventional selective logging, clear-cutting, agroforestry, timber plantations, fuelwood plantations. They also conducted analysis of net present value in these same systems and found unsurprisingly that the ranking for net present value was different.

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Agro-Successional Restoration as a Strategy to Facilitate Tropical Forest Recovery

Background

In the review article, it compares the forestry restoration model with the agroforestry restoration model. Even though they both incorporate the same techniques for controlling weeds and preparing the site for restoration, they differ in other aspects. One of the two agroforestry methods for restoration is the taungya method, which is when mixed crops and trees are all planted together, while the other is the agro-successional restoration method. 

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Using Plantations to Catalyze Tropical Forest Restoration

Background

The article discusses the benefits and drawbacks of tropical forest restoration via monoculture tree plantation, using exotic species. The research references Parratto, Turnbull and Jones (1997) and five other specific articles from different regions that have prescribed different treament methods, with particular interest in the monoculture tree plantation, using exotic species, treatment option. 

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The role of ecological theory and practice in poverty alleviation and environmental conservation

Background

This review emphasized the roles and tools of ecologists that would be helpful in poverty alleviation internationally.  Specifically, knowledge of sustainable sources of energy, provision of clean water, functional traits of vegetation, and design of agro-forestry systems were cited as examples of knowledge that would be helpful for cross-disciplinary strategies.

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The Humid Tropics Cattle Ranching Complex: Cases from Panama Reviewed

Background

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The ecology of peace: preparing Colombia for new political and planetary climates

Background

Written in 2018, this article recognizes that Colombia is emerging from a decades long conflict and this newfound social peace will have ecological and environmental effects. The authors aim to examine how the current, stable state of Colombia along with the continuing changes in global climate may shape both the ecological character and biodiversity of the country. They do so by first reviewing the socio-political state of Colombia and then go on to identify challenges in research and policy and discuss management decisions in the country that may lead to beneficial outcomes. 

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Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests

background

This meta-analysis of 133 studies challenges the widely-held notion that active restoration methods are more effective at ecosystem restoration and hold higher conservation value than natural regeneration. Given the vast commitments for ecosystem restoration across the globe, and the high cost, effort, and resources needed for these commitments, this study proposes that increasing use of natural regeneration and assisted natural regeneration is necessary to achieve these commitments.

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Forest and landscape restoration severely constrained by a lack of attention to the quantity and quality of tree seed: Insights from a global survey

background

This review article focuses on tree seed supply in the context of forest and landscape restoration (FLR). The article asserts that large-scale FLR commitments will require billions of tree seeds and seedlings, and that this supply is extremely inadequate in terms of not only quantity but also genetic diversity and quality. The article reviews 139 FLR projects worldwide and identifies widespread problems in the availability and diversity of tree seed supply. 

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Natural regeneration as a tool for large‐scale forest restoration in the tropics: prospects and challenges

background

This article is a review of natural regeneration in the context of large-scale forest restoration in the tropics. The article provides case studies of successful natural regeneration, pointing out the side benefits of genetic adaptation, traditionally-used species, and local biodiversity. These features also bring greater ecosystem resilience.

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Restoration of Degraded Tropical Forest Landscapes

Background

Deforestation and the declining extent of tropical forests has negatively impacted ecosystem functions, services, and goods and has disproportionately harmed the rural poor of tropical countries. In the wake of deforestation, agricultural development and traditional methods of reforestation (plantations) have largely failed to provide sustainable livelihoods. This review article assesses the strengths and weaknesses of different tropical restoration methods to combat forest degredation and address rural poverty.

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