Drivers of Reforestation in Human-Dominated Forests

Drivers of Reforestation in Human-Dominated Forests


The country of Nepal is examined as a case study for forest cover change, as it has experienced a shift towards an increase in forest cover in recent years. This study examines forests across Nepal in order to provide a framework of social factors useful for understanding this trend.

research goals & Methods

A dataset of 55 forests from the middle hills and Terai plains of Nepal was examined for factors influencing forest cover change. 

conclusions & takeaways

The study found that land tenure regimes and local monitoring of forest regrowth were of central importance in leading to forest cover increase. Additional factors that explained forest cover change included group size per unit of forest area, management of social conflict, adoption of new technologies to reduce pressure on forests, and involvement of users in forest maintenance activities. 



Nagendra H. Drivers of reforestation in human-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2007;104:15218–15223. doi:10.1073/pnas.0702319104.


  • International Forestry Resources and Institutions (IFRI)
  • Center for the Study of Institutions, Population, and Environmental Change, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
  • Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment, Hebbal, Bangalore, India