Local Livelihoods

Compensatory Afforestation in Odisha, India: A political ecology of forest restoration

Background

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Anything but a story foretold: multiple politics of resistance to the agrarian extractivist project in Guatemala

Background

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Conservation, green/blue grabbing, and accumulation by dispossession in Tanzania

Background

A number of scholars point out that current processes surrounding the control of land and other resources lead to the loss of land for some alongside the accumulation of wealth by others. According to them, recent forms of neoliberal conservation enable capital accumulation by powerful groups through shifts in ownership and access over common land away from communities. The authors of this paper sought to compare wildlife and coastal conservation projects in Tanzania to understand the similarities and differences in the types of dispossessions and accumulation that occur in these two types of ecosystems through conservation programs.

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Limited effects of tree planting on forest canopy cover and rural livelihoods in rural India

Background

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Forty years of community-based forestry: A review of its extent and effectiveness

Background

This report assesses the effectiveness of community-based forestry (CBF) over the past 40 years. Governments have been implementing programs such as participatory conservation, joint forest management, community forestry with partial or full devolution, and private ownership over several decades, and the authors assess the biophysical and social impacts of these programs, and outline the key lessons learnt during this time. 

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Green economy, oil palm development, and the exclusion of Indigenous swidden cultivators in the Philippines

Background

Green economy programs involve agro-industrial development in land frontiers for activities that are considered low-carbon or as seen as supporting greenhouse gas reduction. In the Philippines, as in many parts of South-East Asia, oil palm plantations are promoted as a form of green growth, contributing to food security and biofuels while meeting reforestation goals on lands that are often classified as idle, or waste, but may not be in practice. The paper explores the implications of oil palm development on land tenure security of smallholder swidden cultivators from indigenous communities.

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Beyond tenure: Rights-based approaches to peoples and forests, some lessons from the Forest Peoples Programme

Background

Land tenure reforms have been implemented in several forested landscapes to support livelihood security among forest-depended communities. However, while these reforms have led to some improvements in tenure and livelihood security, they have also increased social exclusion and marginalization in some contexts. This paper argues that tenure reforms should be implemented within a rights-based framework, but one that integrates a range of human rights and is not solely focused on property rights.  

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Context in land matters: The effects of history on land formalizations

Background

Land formalization is the process by which governments grant legal rights to land, along with responsibilities and conditions of access through land titles and other official documents. This process typically establishes or re-establishes the authority of the state over the governance of land. This paper draws on examples from Africa and Asia to illustrate how land formalization has differing impacts on a diverse set of claimants, and largely increases inequity.

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Vulnerability of smallholder farmers to climate change in Central America and Mexico: current knowledge and research gaps

Background

This article recognizes that smallholder farmers are both critical to the global agricultural sector yet are one of the most vulnerable populations to climate change. Specifically, farmers in Central America and Mexico are experiences particularly high threats, thus the authors focus on this subgroup.

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Forests as safety nets for mitigating the impacts of HIV/AIDS in southern Africa

BACKGROUND

70% of the people infected with HIV/AIDS are in Southern Africa, and the disease is perpetrating the already existing poverty in the continent. The impacts of the disease have led to livelihood change, as more funds in households are channeled to health care. To cater for these pressures and shocks households can resort to the use of forest products and in trading them to generate income. Some families have begun to rely on traditional remedies due to their low cost.

Open access copy available
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