General

Understanding the value and limitations of nature-based solutions to climate change and other global challenges

background

Nature-based Solutions (NbS) are initiatives that work with nature to adapt to environmental and climate challenges. NbS have grown in popularity in recent years, and are generally seen as a promising way to address the effects of climate change. Nature-based Solutions are also seen as a way to help countries achieve their Nationally-Determined Contributions (NDCs). Outlined by the UN Paris Agreement in 2016, NDCs are nations’ individual pledges to reduce CO2 emissions and adapt to climate change.

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A systematic review of the socio-economic impacts of large-scale tree plantations, worldwide

Background

Large-scale tree plantations can provide raw material for industries and support climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. However, they can have positive and negative ecological and socioeconomic impacts. This paper presents the findings on a systematic review of literature on the socioeconomic impacts of large-scale tree plantations.

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Why do foresters plant trees? Testing theories of bureaucratic decision-making in central India

Background

There is a long history of tree planting in India, and it continues to be favored by policy makers and bureaucrats at the state level. However, the author points out that the popularity of tree plantations is puzzling in the Indian case because firstly, it does not seem aligned with the goals of India’s forest policies which tend to emphasize ecosystem services rather than timber production and secondly, many degraded areas can regenerate naturally and do not require plantings to regenerate. This paper examines why tree plantations continue to be popular among state-level forest departments in India and how they are implemented in the field.

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Anything but a story foretold: multiple politics of resistance to the agrarian extractivist project in Guatemala

Background

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Afforestation and reforestation programs in South and South East Asia under the Clean Development Mechanism: Trends and development opportunities

Background

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Resistance, acquiescence or incorporation? An introduction to land grabbing and political reactions ‘from below'

Background

While several research studies have examined the processes surrounding rural land transformation(s), and, in particular, the accumulation of public land by private entities, there are few studies that examine the responses of locally impacted people to these processes. This paper introduces a set of articles which discuss the varied reactions that local people have to the acquisition of public land and the ways in which they are formed and expressed.

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Grey areas in green grabbing: subtle and indirect interconnections between climate change politics and land grabs and their implications for research

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Green Grabbing: a new appropriation of nature?

Background

The authors introduce a set of papers which collectively discuss discourses and processes surrounding the transfer of ownership, user rights, or control over land and resources to meet environmental goals such as the production of biofuels or carbon sequestration, dispossessing some of their land while contributing to increasing the accumulation of property for others. The papers were originally presented at the International Conference on Global Land Grabbing and contribute to existing debates around land grabbing by building on the concept of ‘green grabbing’, wherein the appropriation of land is justified on environmental grounds.

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Forty years of community-based forestry: A review of its extent and effectiveness

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This report assesses the effectiveness of community-based forestry (CBF) over the past 40 years. Governments have been implementing programs such as participatory conservation, joint forest management, community forestry with partial or full devolution, and private ownership over several decades, and the authors assess the biophysical and social impacts of these programs, and outline the key lessons learnt during this time. 

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The tragedy of the commons

Background

Written in the late 1960s, this paper suggests that over population is a major challenge for continued human well-being, and especially for the management of commons. It uses examples of over-grazing in common lands and pollution management to argue that individuals are likely to look out for their own interest and continue to use common resources or pollute them acting as though they were available infinitely. While this tendency does not have negative consequences when the population is low, it can make resource management more challenging as the population increases.

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