Sub-Saharan Africa

Bioremediation of a crude-oil polluted agricultural-soil at Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Background

Since more than 98% of Nigeria’s current economic support is crude oil, and oil spills are in inevitable and frequent, six treatment sample-cell were tested on the soils of the Niger Delta of Nigeria for crude oil bioremediation. Oil spills cause nitrogen levels to decrease, while increasing carbon content. A decrease in nitrogen and the toxicity of crude oil reduces the growth of heterotrophic bacteria, which utilize petroleum carbon for cell synthesis.

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Getting the Right End of the Stick: Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation in an Organizational Context

Background

This chapter documents the process by which CARE Zambia institutionalized a learning approach to their internal management and a participatory model of monitoring and evaluation as well as the results of this transition, using a food security project as a case study. CARE Zambia used seven principles to turn themselves into a 'learning organization': 1) thrive on change, 2) facilitate learning from the surrounding environment, 3) facilitate learning from staff, 4) encourage experimentation, 5) communicate sucesses and failures, 6) reward learning, and 7) promote a sense of caring.

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Abreha Weatsbeha Community Ethiopia: Equator Initiative Case Studies. Sustainable Development Solutions for people, nature and resilient communities

Background

This report from UNDP is intended to "the the full story ofhow (innovative sustainable developments solutions) evolve,the breadth of their impacts (and) how they change over time" through the case study of Abreha we Atsbeha in Ethiopia. Out of 800 contestants, the community in Abreha we Atsbeha was awarded the Equator Prize in along with US$20,000 in 2012 in recognition of their tremendous work on the restoration of degraded land and subsequent increases in food security, nutrition, and local livelihoods.

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Contributions of agroforestry to ecosystem services in the miombo eco-region of eastern and southern Africa

Background

The article discusses the functional benefits of agroforestry to the miombo region of eastern and southern Africa, which includes the following countries: Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Tanzania, and Mozambique.

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Financial Analysis of Agroforestry Practices

Background

The analysis of economic of agroforestry is more complicated than annual crops because it involves trees and crops and because there is usually a period between establishment and when impact can be measured. This chapter analyses the financial returns of farmers in three practices: fodder shrubs (Calliandra calothyrsus) in Kenya were established to increase mil production; rotational woodlots in Tanzania were implemented to provide firewood (Acacia crassicarpa) and improved fallows (Sesbania sesban) were established in Zambia to increase fertility. 

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Dominant species' resprout biomass dynamics after cutting in the Sudanian savanna-woodlands of West Africa: long term effects of annual early fire and grazing

Background

Given widespread anthropogenic disturbance and land degradation across the Sudanian savanna-woodlands of West Africa, these researchers examined the impacts of early annual fire and grazing on 6 dominant plant species in terms of: shoot mortality, height and girth. Though rather unoriginally, they hypothesized that forest biomass reconstitution is affected by disturbances such as fire and grazing. 

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Charaterization and Impact Assessment of Water Harvesting Techniques: A Case Study of Abreha Atsbeha Watershed, Tigray, Ethiopia

Background

This report gives a comprehensive overview of water harvesting techniques in a community called Abreha we Atsbeha in Tigray, Ethiopia.  This community was awarded the UN Equator Prize for their restoration work in 2012.  In addition to providing a detailed historical, demographic, ecological, and hydrological description of the site, the authors also detail the major water harvesting techniques employed, including: bench terracing, stone bunds, stine bunds with trenches, soil bunds with trenches, semi-circular stone bunds, percolation ponds check dams, shallow wells, diversion heads, and hand dug wells. 

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Gender Inequality in Malidino Biodiversity Community-based Reserve, Senegal: Political Parties and the 'Village Approach'

Background

This research examines some of the less visible, and ongoing social dynamics in a World Bank-funded conservation site in central Senegal. The goal of the World Bank project was to create a decentralized and community-based participatory forest management program that would re-structure the political economy of the charcoal industry, give more rights and autonomy to the local community, emphasize improved gender equity, and provide technical assistance to NGOs and community-based organizations.

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Local ecological knowledge of trees on farms, constraints and opportunities for further integratino in Tigray Region, northern Ethiopia: A Case Study of smallholder farmers in Abreha Wa Atsbeha and Adi Gudom

Background

The paper compared two Ethiopian sites with differing levels of on-farm tree adoption: Abreha we Atsbeha (high adoption) and Adi Gudom (low adoption). The author used a knowledge-based systems approach involving participatory rural appraisal, focus group discussions, and semi-structured interviews.  In both sites, farmers planted trees on their holdings for income generation, user rights, and direct benefits, and they planted trees on communal lands to comply with government policies, improve soil fertility and water harvesting, improve land for redistribution, and improve aesthetics. 

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300,000 Hectares Restored in Shinyanga, Tanzania — but what did it really take to achieve this restoration?

Background

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