Sub-Saharan Africa

Potential for low-cost carbon removal through tropical reforestation

background

The UNFCCC COP21 (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties) created the Paris Agreement in 2015, which pledges to “limit global warming to well below 2, preferably 1.5 °C.” For this to happen, we must both reduce how much carbon dioxide (CO2) that is released and find ways to capture CO2 that is already in the atmosphere. This study explores two ways this might happen using Nature-based Solutions: tree planting in the form of reforestation and afforestation, and the prevention of deforestation. 

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Conservation, green/blue grabbing, and accumulation by dispossession in Tanzania

Background

A number of scholars point out that current processes surrounding the control of land and other resources lead to the loss of land for some alongside the accumulation of wealth by others. According to them, recent forms of neoliberal conservation enable capital accumulation by powerful groups through shifts in ownership and access over common land away from communities. The authors of this paper sought to compare wildlife and coastal conservation projects in Tanzania to understand the similarities and differences in the types of dispossessions and accumulation that occur in these two types of ecosystems through conservation programs.

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Inverting the moral economy: the case of land acquisitions for forest plantations in Tanzania

Background

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Carbon colonialism and the new land grab: Plantation forestry in Uganda and its livelihood impact

Background

There has been a global increase in private sector investments towards activities plantations for clean fuel or climate change mitigation that are justified on the basis of their environmentally beneficial outcomes. This paper examines the discourses and mechanisms that enable the greater privatization of land and other resources using green development as a justification.

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Context in land matters: The effects of history on land formalizations

Background

Land formalization is the process by which governments grant legal rights to land, along with responsibilities and conditions of access through land titles and other official documents. This process typically establishes or re-establishes the authority of the state over the governance of land. This paper draws on examples from Africa and Asia to illustrate how land formalization has differing impacts on a diverse set of claimants, and largely increases inequity.

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Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration Enhances Rural Livelihoods in Dryland West Africa

BACKGROUND

Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration, (FMNR), has been adopted in the drylands of West Africa, i.e., the northernmost region of Ghana. This is an approach which encourages the regeneration of woody plant cover in farming and mixed land use areas for arable land restoration and reforestation. Farmers in this region practice smallholder pastoralism and seasonal rain fed crop farming for subsistence and market purposes. FMNR has been adopted as a solution to low agricultural productivity. Previous studies only focused on the economic contribution of FMNR.

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The ecology and management of the Miombo woodlands for sustainable livelihoods in southern Africa: the case for non-timber forest products

BACKGROUND

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Structural diversity and regeneration of the endangered Prunus africana (Rosaceae) in Zimbabwe

BACKGROUND

Prunus Africana is widely recognized for its medicinal purposes resulting in high unsustainable use and selling in the international market. Its bark contains many healing properties. Overexploitation has led to its listing in CITES list of endangered species. A remnant population is still available at the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe however, the area is prone to land use changes.

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Restoration of Degraded Tropical Forest Landscapes

BACKGROUND

Forest loss and degradation negatively affect rural communities whose livelihoods are dependent on forests for ecological goods and services. To address the challenge, three solutions have been proposed, expanding networks of protected areas, improving agricultural productivity on abandoned lands and reforestation. Of the three, new approaches to restoration have shown to have the potential to address forest degradation and rural poverty.

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Improving land and water management

BACKGROUND

This working paper from World Resources Institute (WRI) gives a glimpse of the challenges experienced by smallholder farmers across developing countries. Issues on land – from insecure tenure to degradation, exacerbated by pressures from climate change, has resulted into a significant drop in crop yield. This led to more poverty and food insecurity. However, linkages between scientists and farmers provide some hope in terms of possible solutions to increase agricultural production. Improved land and water management is at the center of all this.

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