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Fire and tree species diversity in tropical peat swamp forests

Background

Indonesia houses a large quantity of peat swamps, an ecosystem type that contains diverse plant species, and provides a habitat for endangered animals. Peat swamps are degraded due to logging and agriculture expansion, specifically with the use of fire. Peat swamps are highly susceptible to fires due to peat flammability. Peat swamps also house a large quantity of carbon, so restoration is a high priority.

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The eco-evolutionary history of Madagascar presents unique challenges to tropical forest restoration

Background

Madagascar forests contain high biodiversity and species endemism, while also being heavily threatened by deforestation. Restoration of these forests may be unique to many other restoration projects due to the unique evolutionary history of the island.

Goals and Methods

The authors conduct a literature review of publications to determine if forest restoration in Madagascar is more challenging. With compiled literature from 1990 to 2022, the authors consequently describe unique challenges to Madagascar forest restoration in order to facilitate higher quality restoration projects.

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Ten principles for restoring campo rupestre, a threatened tropical, megadiverse, nutrient-impoverished montane grassland

Background

In the U.N. Decade on Ecosystem Restoration, one of the most overlooked ecosystem types is tropical grasslands. Studies on these ecosystems are lacking, as are the foundations for restoration. These foundational points of policy, practice, and governance in addition to science need to be addressed. The authors provide 10 principles to restore the campo rupestre, a tropical grassland that is threatened by human activities including mining.

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A standard framework for assessing the costs and benefits of restoration: introducing The Economics of Ecosystem Restoration

Background

Policy behind restoration projects and efforts is stronger than ever before, however the funding and financial structure to keep these efforts going is drastically underdeveloped. Ecological restoration finance is not usually in the expertise of restoration practitioners and communities, thus requiring those people to bring in someone with that expertise for aid. The authors emphasize that restoration projects are long-term investments and therefore a better financial understanding is needed to properly plan and execute those projects. Better understanding the costs and benefits of restoration will help gain easier access to financial support.

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How are biodiversity and carbon stock recovered during tropical forest restoration? Supporting the ecological paradigms and political context involved

Background

Ecological restoration is a tool for achieving global environmental agendas and climate mitigation. There are many studies on the restoration of ecosystem biodiversity, as well as on the restoration of ecosystem functioning. The relationship between these two ecological features is not yet clearly known beyond a positive correlation between the two. The authors conduct this meta-analysis to explore the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in the context of ecological restoration.

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Latitudinal trends in plant-pollinator interactions: Are tropical plants more specialised?

Background

Taxon diversity often correlates positively or negatively with latitude. Though much is known about species trends, species interaction trends have not been studied as much. Specifically, plant pollinator interactions in the tropics are a lesser known topic that must be explored.

Goals and Methods

The authors conduct a literature review searching for information on the latitude of study sites, pollinator species diversity and abundance, plant species, and interactions.

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Cactus height increases the modularity of a plant–frugivore network in the Caatinga dry forest

Background

Seed dispersal plays an important role in maintaining ecosystem biodiversity. Disperser species with many plant interactions tend to be more abundant while species with fewer interaction tend to be rarer. Fruit accessibility is one plant factor that limits frugivore visits. Plant height is thought to affect fruit accessibility.

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Tropical fruit production depends on wild insect communities: bees and lychees in Thailand

Background

Most of the agricultural crops around the world depend on wild animal/insect pollination. Insect pollination is the most common in tropical regions, and is something that tropical tree fruits such as the native Asian lychee (Litchi chinensis). The roles of wild insects on lychee production in northern Thailand has not yet been evaluated.

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Suppression of seed production as a long-term strategy in weed biological control: The combined impact of two biocontrol agents on Acacia mearnsii in South Africa

Background

Acacia mearnsii is a woody plant native to Southeastern Australia and Tasmania. Introduced into South Africa in the mid-1800s for timber, the species has become invasive to the region. Reducing the amount of precipitation reaching the ground, hindering agriculture and lowering biodiversity are just a few of the detrimental impacts. Though there has been pushback to controlling this species for commercial interests, two biological control agents, a seed-feeding weevil and a flower-galling midge are known to control species spread and are introduced to the region.

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Seed removal, seed dispersers, and the allocation of tissues in Myrtaceae seeds

Background

Plants allocate resources to protective seed tissues in order to avoid seed death and ensure successful reproduction. Myrtaceae is an abundant plant family in the Brazilian Atlantic forest with many species producing fleshy fruits that are attractive to birds, rodents, and other mammals. Myrtaceae species may adapt seed characteristics to avoid predation.

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