East Asia and Pacific

Forest Rehabilitation and its Implication for Forest Transition Theory

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This article reviews the history of forest rehabilitation in Vietnam, Philippines, China, Peru, Indonesia, and Brazil.

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Local Impacts and Responses to Regional Forest Conservation and Rehabilitation Programs in China's Northwest Yunnan province

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This article reviews large-scale government reforestation activities in Yunnan Province, China. Agricultural development in the past half century in the Salween and Mekong watersheds in northwest Yunnan has resulted in severe erosion. The government has recently banned logging and instituted large-scale reforestation programs at the same time. These reforestation projects use Pyrus pyrifolia, Pinus yunnanensis and Pinus armandii.

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Effect of Site Preparation and Initial Fertilization on the Establishment and Growth of Four Plantation Tree Species used in Reforestation of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Dominated Grasslands

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This study describes site preparation techniques for the regeneration of four native tree species in Imperata cylindrica- dominated areas of South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Goals & Methods

Two trials were run. The first one examined the effects of strip plowing and complete plowing on the performance of Acaca mangium. The second trial compared the effects of complete plowing, herbicide treatment and fertilization (NPK) on four tree species commonly use in Imperata grassland reforestation.

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Direct Seeding of Forest Trees in Grassland Communities of Carranglan, Luzon Island

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This study concerns the survival of 12 native pioneer species and one exotic species when directly sown into grasslands (Themeda triandra and Imperata cylindrica grasses). They were monitored for 16 weeks . The Authors note that direct seeding studies are important because direct seeding is cheaper and faster than nursery propagation.

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Effect of Vegetation Restoration on Soil and Water Erosion and Nutrient Losses of a Severely Eroded Clayey Plinthudult in Southeastern China

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In this study, researchers compare erosion from reforested and degraded sites in subtropical southeastern China.

Goals & Methods

The objective of the study was to estimate the long-term influences of reforestation on soil and water erosion and nutrient losses in regions of southeast China that are characterized by severely eroded bare land derived from Quaternary red clay. The study examined surface runoff, soil erosion, and soil nutrient content.  

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One Century of Forest Rehabilitation in the Philippines: Approaches, Outcomes, and Lessons

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This chapter provides a review of reforestation efforts in the Philippines, beginning with small-scale forest rehabilitation efforts since 1910. Reforestation was traditionally implemented by government and private companies. Since the mid-1970s, international funders have driven these efforts.

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Taungya in the Philippines

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This book chapter provides a description of the ecological effects of deforestation in the Philippines and a history of the failed social forestry programs that began in the 1970s.

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Annual report of the director of forestry of the Philippine Islands for the period 1915-1924

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This report contains a number of sections relevant to early reforestation activities in the Philippines, including research on succession pathways, restoration experiments on degraded lands, tree nursery operations, and native species.

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Philippine Dipterocarp Forests

  • This study provides a detailed description of Philippine dipterocarp forests, including details on climatic conditions and composition in the first pages. Page 430 has a table of natural stand regeneration studies of a range of plots (natural and cut over), listing seedling numbers and size class distribution of 5 species in “virgin Negros rainforest” (Table 3); 7-10 species of Bataan are listed on p. 433-437 (Table V-VII), 6 species in Laguna are listed on p. 438-441 (Table VIII-IX), and multiple species of Mt Maquiling are listed on p. 444-450 (Table X-XII).
  • Succession pathways on cleared land are described starting on p. 451.
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Special Report of Captain George P. Ahern, Ninth U.S. Infantry, in Charge of Forestry Bureau, Philippine Islands, Covering the Period from April, 1900, to July 30,1901

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This 139-page report outlines the state of the Spanish colonial Forestry Bureau at time of arrival of US forces in the Philippines (~1900), and reforms instituted by Captain Ahern. He describes the timber business in the Philippines including the state of the forested lands, species exploited, and volumes exported. At that time, 160 species of native trees were exported, but the Forestry Bureau knew of 665 native tree species. Ahern suggests trying to find a use for them to make timber extraction more profitable. Samples of 100 species were sent to the US for exhibition.

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