East Asia and Pacific

Reforestation and Farmers

Background

This chapter provides an overview of reforestation programs involving smallholder farmers, highlighting factors that influence the attractiveness of reforestation to different types of farmers.

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InVEST: A Tool for Integrating Ecosystem Services into Policy and Decision-Making

background

This document explains the InVEST tool, an ecosystem service model (via a software program) used to geographically map the provision of ecosystem services and how they can be affected by development and policies. The model, designed by the Natural Capital Project (collaboration of WWF, TNC, the University of Minnesota, and Stanford University), is intended for planners to maximize the benefit from activities such as reforestation.

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Economic Analysis of Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria) Community Forest Plantation, a Fast Growing Species in East Java, Indonesia

background

This article examines Paraserianthes falcataria (Sengon) mixed community forest plantations in East Java, Indonesia. The Indonesian government launched a timber / reforestation program in 1990 but only 20% of projected timber supply has come from these plantations, and total reforested area is far below targets. Before 1997, forest resources were held by concession companies, and local access rights were denied. Under reforms however, government decentralization gave local governments more authority to manage their resources, and extensive deforestation (and low levels of reforestation) has followed.

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Rattan: Ecological Balance in a Borneo Rainforest Swidden

background

This study provides an overview of the cultivation of rattan vines (Calamus trachycoleus) utilized in traditional swidden cultivation in Borneo, Indonesia.

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Smallholder timber plantation development in Indonesia: what is preventing progress?

Background

In the context of a supply-demand problem in Indonesia’s forestry sector in 2006 causing an increase in illegal logging, the government of Indonesia undertook measures to stem illegal logging and incentivize plantations. This paper evaluates a community timber plantation program in Indonesia called HTR (Hutan Tanaman Rakyat, community timber plantation).

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Land Use Transitions: Socio-Ecological Feedback versus Socio-Economic Change

background

This study seeks to understand the social, environmental, and economic factors that influence land use transition and how those factors influence resulting forest quality. The study looks at both at forest loss and reforestation. The authors use recent changes in forest cover in northern Vietnam as a case study.

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Trees and regeneration in rubber agroforests and other forest-derived vegetation in Jambi (Sumatra, Indonesia)

background

Rubber agroforests (RAF) in Sumatra, introduced in the early 1900s, represent a managed forest type that is an intermediate ecosystem between natural forest and agricultural land. While understory vegetation and some trees are allowed to remain in RAF, as agriculturally managed forests, they may differ from unmanaged forests. This study compares forest regeneration in RAF and secondary forests.

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Seeing the fruit for the trees in Borneo

Background

Lowland dipterocarp tropical rainforests reproduce during infrequent community-wide events known as ‘general flowering.’ These unpredictable cycles, thought to be influenced by El Nino cycles, are the primary reproductive driver across this forest type. During a time of rapid deforestation across the highly diverse, but highly sensitive, dipterocarp-dominated landscape of Borneo, capitalizing on general flowering is critical for seed collection for restoration efforts and for species preservation.

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The Value of Rehabilitating Logged Rainforest for Birds

Background

This study examines a lowland, dry dipterocarp forest in Sabah, Malaysia that had been selectively logged in 1988-89. One area was rehabilitated (enrichment planting and liberation cutting of vines, bamboos, and noncommercial species). This area was surrounded by a naturally reforesting area. The authors suggest that rehabilitation of selectively logged forests is a more effective carbon sink than plantations.

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Secondary Forest Regeneration Under Fast-Growing Forest Plantations on Degraded Imperata cylindrica Grasslands

BACKGROUND

In Southeast Asia, large areas of former rain forest lands are covered by fire-climax Imperata cyclindrica (alang-alang) grass. Grass has potential to colonize varying types and sizes of land preventing regrowth of woody species. Natural forest recovery is inhibited by fires and competition with grass and shrubs. Planting fast growing tree species can create needed micro-climate and speed up regeneration of woody species.  This study compared the regeneration of native tree species under the canopy of tree plantations, riverine areas, and uncultivated grassland areas.

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