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Fairly efficient, efficiently fair: Lessons from designing and testing payment schemes for ecosystem services in Asia

Background

Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) is defined as a market-based approach yet the authors argue that it cannot be generalized or implements and often suffers due to the commoditization of these services.

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Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) in Latin America: Analysing the performance of 40 case studies

Background

Payment of Ecosystem Services (PES), which encourages landowners improve land management through market incentives, has been implemented around the world since the 1990s. This high investment requires an analysis of PES schemes and their outcomes.

Goals & Methods

The goal of the paper is to inform policy and provide decisions makers with insights on PES in order to aid in future design and ensure the success of initiatives. To do this, the authors review 40 cases of PES throughout Latin America based on a consistent set of criteria.

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Adopt a carbon tax to protect tropical forests

Background

The authors states that the halting of deforestation is critical to addressing climate change and biodiversity loss, the investment in conservation is lacking. Thus, they call upon countries through out the tropics to adopt a carbon tax, which would serve as a disincentive for companies to continue deforestation.

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Money for Nothing? A Call for Empirical Evaluation of Biodiversity Conservation Investments

Background

The authors assert that while the ecological aspects of conservation efforts are highly investigated and supported by empirical evidence, the policy aspects are not. In response, they argue that conservation policy measures must adopt program evaluation methods that would allow one to determine if intervention would be viable. 

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A Guide to Selecting Ecosystem Service Models for Decision-Making: Lessons from Sub-Saharan Africa

Background

Ecosystem services provide critical resources that support human well-being; therefore, managing for them is vital. This report suggests that modeling may be an effective means of informing management when data is lacking, a problem that many developing countries experience.  

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Have integrated landscape approaches reconciled societal and environmental issues in the tropics?

Background

The author cite that while there has been growing recognition of intergrated landscape approaches, which aims to enhance environmental and social outcomes, there is still a lack of understanding. There has been suggestions that these approaches have been undertherorized and a lack of evidence of its effectiveness.

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Stewardship Success: How Community Group Dynamics Affect Urban Street Tree Survival and Growth

BACKGROUND

Urban street trees provide various benefits. Their establishment has been characterized by low survivals in the past 50 years. Reasons behind the low productivity are bio physical challenges and shortage of funds to take care of the trees. Community groups and home- owners have successfully participated in tree planting programs, however little research has been conducted if there are social factors which contribute to the poor tree survivals and growth.

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Mangroves of Kenya: The effects of species richness on growth and ecosystem functions of restored East African Mangrove stands

Background

The authors of the story identify the gaps in long-term studies on the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem services in specific ecosystems. The study focuses on one of these ecosystems: mangroves, examining the effects of species diversity on above ground productivity. 

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Vulnerability of smallholder farmers to climate change in Central America and Mexico: current knowledge and research gaps

Background

This article recognizes that smallholder farmers are both critical to the global agricultural sector yet are one of the most vulnerable populations to climate change. Specifically, farmers in Central America and Mexico are experiences particularly high threats, thus the authors focus on this subgroup.

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Forests as safety nets for mitigating the impacts of HIV/AIDS in southern Africa

BACKGROUND

70% of the people infected with HIV/AIDS are in Southern Africa, and the disease is perpetrating the already existing poverty in the continent. The impacts of the disease have led to livelihood change, as more funds in households are channeled to health care. To cater for these pressures and shocks households can resort to the use of forest products and in trading them to generate income. Some families have begun to rely on traditional remedies due to their low cost.

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