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Nitrogen-fixing trees inhibit growth of regenerating Costa Rican rainforests

BACKGROUND

Nitrogen fixing plants are the primary source of nitrogen in forests, and it is expected that more nitrogen fixers will bring in faster growth. Hence this study conducted, in a humid tropical rainforest North- East Costa Rica, challenged this notion. The area of study had similar dominant species, with P. macroloba being the most dominant Nitrogen fixer.

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Pest management through tropical tree conservation

Background

Deforestation and crop monocultures in Veracruz, Mexico are leading to the disappearance of indigenous trees and the animal species that depend on them. This is particularly troubling to local agricultural workers who benefit from species like hymenopteran parasitoids that attack pest fruit flies. This research evaluates the relationship between hymenopteran parasitoids, pest fruit flies and their fruit hosts and proposes potential strategies for conservation and pest management.

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Carbon farming with bamboos in Africa: A call for action

BACKGROUND

Bamboos are of paramount importance for livelihoods, landscapes, and climate change mitigation. When compared to other regions, little research has been done about bamboo resources in Africa. This is because National Forest Resources Assessments rarely capture the necessary data. Approximately, there are 38 species of woody bamboos native to sub-Saharan Africa including Madagascar with many endemic species. So far, their population is dwindling but if sustainably managed, they can contribute significantly economically and to the environment.

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Safety Nets, Gap Filling and Forests: A Global-Comparative Perspective

BACKGROUND

This paper seeks to prove how forests and wildlands are utilized in developing countries as safety nets to shocks, and how they provide resources for seasonal gap filling. The study was carried out in various developing countries in different continents. Areas where there is no forest at all were excluded and those completely forest covered such as those dominated by hunter- gatherers were not considered.

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Leaf litter arthropod responses to tropical forest restoration

Background

Soil and litter arthropods play critical roles in tropical ecosystem function including driving organic matter decomposition and nitrogen mineralization. With the increasing need for forest restoration projects, it is important to know how these arthropod communities respond to a variety of restoration strategies and techniques in order to maintain healthy ecosystem function. This study was conducted in a mixed-use agricultural landscape in southern Costa Rica, in an effort to contribute to local restoration research efforts.

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Ecosystem-based adaptation for smallholder farmers: Definitions, opportunities and constraints

background

Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) or the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services has been gaining recognition as being a vital part of the overall strategy to help people adapt to the adverse effects of climate change. This study recognizes the importance of EbA in helping smallholder farmers adapt to climate change while providing co-benefits such as livelihood, continued provision of a variety of ecosystem services, and conservation of existing resources.

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Applied nucleation facilitates tropical forest recovery: Lessons learned from a 15‐year study

Background

This study examines the technique of applied nucleation, which is based on the planting of tree islands, as a means of cost-effective assisted natural regeneration. 

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Participatory research for restoration and agro-ecological production

Background

This chapter describes the process and outcomes of a 25-year participatory research project that was carried out in partnership between CIPAV and farmers of a local community in El Dovio, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The project was guided by integrated land management and the need to combine biodiversity conservation, ecological restoration, and sustainable use of natural resources. 

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Restoring Forests For Communities, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services

Background

This publication summarizes the proceedings of a 2011 conference held in Bogor, Indonesia titled "Restoring Forests For Communities, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services". The aim of the conference was to provide a space in which forest restoration approaches used in Indonesia and elsewhere in Southeast Asia were shared and discussed. The report includes summaries of the opening and closing remarks along with the conference's seven presentations. 

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Biofuels: The Impact of Oil Palm on Forests and Climate

Background

This publication summarizes the proceedings of a 2009 conference held Singapore titled "Biofuels: The Impact of Oil Palm on Forests and Climate". With the emergence of palm oil industry, particularly in Asia, there has been a strong debate concerning the ability of this and other biofuels to reduce greenhouse gases but also its contribution to large-scale land conversion. This conference aimed to bring together experts from various fields to discuss potential solutions or alternatives to the industry. The report summarizes the opening remarks of the conference along with four panels, each of which were based on a specific question.  

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