General

Vital Landscape Attributes: Missing Tools for Restoration Ecology

Background

The authors introduce a series of 16 candidates quantifiable attributes, named “vital landscape attributes” (VLAs), for evaluating the results of ecological restoration or rehabilitation undertaken with a landscape perspectives. VLAs provide quantitative indicators of levels of landscape degradation. VLAs aim to monitor and compare restoration or rehabilitation projects whether or not the project designers fully realized the importance of a landscape perspective.

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Motivations for the Restoration of Ecosystems

Background

The underlying reasons to restore ecosystems are numerous yet they remain understated and unappreciated. Therefore, this article attempts to answer the question of why ecosystems are restored. The authors recognize and explore 5 rationales or motivations for restoration: technocratic, biotic, heuristic, idealistic and pragmatic

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Edge‐effects Drive Tropical Forest Fragments Towards an Early‐Successional System

Background

This paper assembles empirical and theoretical evidence to argue that “edge effects” trigger a rapid and inevitable successional process that drives most remaining neotropical forest fragments towards a persistent early-successional system. 

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What drives the success of reforestation projects in tropical developing countries? The case of the Philippines

Background

This study reviewed cases and literatures to assess drivers that ultimately lead restoration projects to have successful outcomes. The main 4 categories of drivers are: technical/biophysical drivers, socio-economic drivers, institutional, policy and management drivers, and reforestation project characteristics. The major indicator of success are fall into two categories: environmental indicators and socio-economic indicators.

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Self-restoration of post-agrogenic soils of Calcisol–Solonetz complex: Soil development, carbon stock dynamics of carbon pools

Background

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Goal programming: Application in the management of the miombo woodland in Mozambique

Background

The paper aims to show the potential for applying goal programming mathematical modeling techniques as a tool to help determine an optimal strategy for combining multi-stakeholder activities in a multi-objective planning framework for the management of miombo woodlands.

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Forestry‐based carbon sequestration projects in Africa: Potential benefits and challenges

Background

While there is growing international interest in developing payment schemes for environmental services, including forest-based carbon sequestration, concern has been expressed that these initiatives are unequally distributed around the globe with an emphasis on Asia or Latin America leaving out African countries where financial inflows could make an especially significant impact given many are among the poorest in the world. This paper seeks to fill a gap in the literature by synthesizing forest-based carbon sequestration projects in Africa while considering the potential to locate future projects there.

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Evaluating the ecological performance of wetland restoration in the Yellow River Delta, China

Background

Throughout the world, wetlands have been severly degraded. In response, there have been large scale efforts to restore these vital ecosystems through focusing on three key areas: hydrology, biology and soil. Still, there are significant knowledge gaps concerning these efforts. Thus, this monitoring project evaluates the progress of wetland restoration in an area in the Yellow River Delta in China in order to further develop, refine, and disseminate site and landscape-level monitoring methods and trail restoration processes.

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China’s Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program for Household Delivery of Ecosystem Services: How Important is a Local Implementation Regime to Survival Rate Outcomes?

Background

In response to catastrophic droughts in the lat 1990s, China launched one of the largest afforestation-based Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) progrms. Much research around this program has focused on the impact on rural welfare. This study, on the other hand, examines the tree survival rates during the “Grain for Green” Program based on socio-economic data of the single households.

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Monitoring and Evaluating Forest Restoration Success

Background

This chapter reviews the importance of monitoring and evaluation for restoration projects, in order to confirm the hypotheses that shape such projects, to fine-tune management actions, adapt restoration approach on a long-scale trajectory, and to prove results to stakeholders. The chapter presents three case studies of ecological restoration and monitoring throughout the world, including the Southwestern Alps, Vietnam, and the Mediterranean region, as three examples where monitoring and evaluation practices have been in place and are evolving over time.

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