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Towards integrated pest and pollinator management in tropical crops

Background

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Multiple invasions exert combined magnified effects on native plants, soil nutrients and alters the plant-herbivore interaction in dry tropical forest

Background

Globalization has resulted in a higher number of species invasions, which have had detrimental impacts on ecosystem biodiversity, functions, and services. Assessment and management of all invasive species is based on knowledge of a small number of species. Management is also focused on single-species invasions rather than multiple simultaneous invasions. India has a high level of species invasions and minimal resources to control them.

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Effects of plant species richness on the structure of plant-bird interaction networks along a 3000-m elevational gradient in subtropical forests

Background

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Spatial density patterns of herbivore response to seasonal dynamics in the tropical deciduous forest of central India

Background

Strong seasonality of dry tropical forests causes variations in vegetation and therefore food resources for animals. This study investigates the seasonal distribution patterns between summer and winter of four ungulate species (Rusa unicolor, Axis axis, Bocephalus tragocamelus, and Sus scrofa) in the Panna Tiger Reserve in India. Ungulates tend to gravitate towards areas that are cooler with more vegetation, and at higher elevations.

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Overcoming biotic homogenization in ecological restoration

Background

Regional, or gamma, diversity is often lower in restored landscapes compared to reference landscapes due to the selection of few desirable species for planting. Lowered diversity in restored landscapes is leading to overall biotic homogenization which puts ecosystems and humans in a more vulnerable position for adapting to environmental changes.

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Active restoration of secondary and degraded forests in the context of the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration

Background

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Safeguarding sloths and anteaters in the future: Priority areas for conservation under climate change

Background

Sloths and anteaters come from the order Pilosa which has very little species richness and a high rate of species loss in recent years, making this order highly vulnerable to extinction. This order is distributed endemically in the Neotropics. Conservation concerns are high due to the high levels of habitat fragmentation and loss in Neotropical landscapes and conservation areas need to be prioritized to ensure Pilosa species survival.

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Seed removal, seed dispersers, and the allocation of tissues in Myrtaceae seeds

Background

Plants allocate resources to protective seed tissues in order to avoid seed death and ensure successful reproduction. Myrtaceae is an abundant plant family in the Brazilian Atlantic forest with many species producing fleshy fruits that are attractive to birds, rodents, and other mammals. Myrtaceae species may adapt seed characteristics to avoid predation.

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Suppression of seed production as a long-term strategy in weed biological control: The combined impact of two biocontrol agents on Acacia mearnsii in South Africa

Background

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Tropical fruit production depends on wild insect communities: bees and lychees in Thailand

Background

Most of the agricultural crops around the world depend on wild animal/insect pollination. Insect pollination is the most common in tropical regions, and is something that tropical tree fruits such as the native Asian lychee (Litchi chinensis). The roles of wild insects on lychee production in northern Thailand has not yet been evaluated.

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Cactus height increases the modularity of a plant–frugivore network in the Caatinga dry forest

Background

Seed dispersal plays an important role in maintaining ecosystem biodiversity. Disperser species with many plant interactions tend to be more abundant while species with fewer interaction tend to be rarer. Fruit accessibility is one plant factor that limits frugivore visits. Plant height is thought to affect fruit accessibility.

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Latitudinal trends in plant-pollinator interactions: Are tropical plants more specialised?

Background

Taxon diversity often correlates positively or negatively with latitude. Though much is known about species trends, species interaction trends have not been studied as much. Specifically, plant pollinator interactions in the tropics are a lesser known topic that must be explored.

Goals and Methods

The authors conduct a literature review searching for information on the latitude of study sites, pollinator species diversity and abundance, plant species, and interactions.

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How are biodiversity and carbon stock recovered during tropical forest restoration? Supporting the ecological paradigms and political context involved

Background

Ecological restoration is a tool for achieving global environmental agendas and climate mitigation. There are many studies on the restoration of ecosystem biodiversity, as well as on the restoration of ecosystem functioning. The relationship between these two ecological features is not yet clearly known beyond a positive correlation between the two. The authors conduct this meta-analysis to explore the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in the context of ecological restoration.

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A standard framework for assessing the costs and benefits of restoration: introducing The Economics of Ecosystem Restoration

Background

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Ten principles for restoring campo rupestre, a threatened tropical, megadiverse, nutrient-impoverished montane grassland

Background

In the U.N. Decade on Ecosystem Restoration, one of the most overlooked ecosystem types is tropical grasslands. Studies on these ecosystems are lacking, as are the foundations for restoration. These foundational points of policy, practice, and governance in addition to science need to be addressed. The authors provide 10 principles to restore the campo rupestre, a tropical grassland that is threatened by human activities including mining.

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The eco-evolutionary history of Madagascar presents unique challenges to tropical forest restoration

Background

Madagascar forests contain high biodiversity and species endemism, while also being heavily threatened by deforestation. Restoration of these forests may be unique to many other restoration projects due to the unique evolutionary history of the island.

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Fire and tree species diversity in tropical peat swamp forests

Background

Indonesia houses a large quantity of peat swamps, an ecosystem type that contains diverse plant species, and provides a habitat for endangered animals. Peat swamps are degraded due to logging and agriculture expansion, specifically with the use of fire. Peat swamps are highly susceptible to fires due to peat flammability. Peat swamps also house a large quantity of carbon, so restoration is a high priority.

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Restoration of plant-animal interactions in terrestrial ecosystems

Background

Plant-animal interactions are understudied within ecosystem restoration contexts. They are crucial to restoration success, with valuable processes like pollination, seed dispersal, and herbivory. The potential of animal reintroductions in restoration practices is understudied as well. Understanding these interactions is an important piece for future restoration efforts.

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Lowland Tapirs Facilitate Seed Dispersal in Degraded Amazonian Forests

Background:

During their first decades of growth, secondary tropical forests have the potential to accumulate significative more carbon than old-growth stands. Nevertheless, recovering degraded forests' habitats could be an expensive task to achieve. In this context, natural regeneration processes, such as seed dispersal by herbivorous animals, offer a cost-effective tool to recover degraded forests, although this role remains largely unexplored.

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Higher Fire Frequency Impaired Woody Species Regeneration in a South-Eastern Amazonian Forest

Background:

The more and more common forest fires in the Amazon rainforest, caused after fire escape from pasture or deforested lands, cause unpredictable changes to the forest structure. Therefore, it is essential to assess the resilience of these ecosystems after being impacted by fire events and the likelihood of maintaining forest tree species and not being replaced by savanna species.

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