Costa Rica

Payments for Environmental Services in Latin America as a Tool for Restoration and Rural Development

Background

Two Payments for Environmental Services (PES) projects are assessed in this article: 1) a bundled PES system in forestry projects in Costa Rica, and 2) the Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Approaches to Ecosystem Management Project in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Colombia. The first project based PED on the provision of four different environmental services (carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, watershed protection, and aesthetic improvements and/or maintenance of the landscape) within the same plot of land. The second project implemented PES proportional to carbon sequestration and biodiversity outputs by participants.

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Growth characteristics of some native tree species used in silvopastoral systems in the humid lowlands of Costa Rica

Background

Degraded pastures established throughout Central America in the latter 20th C are gradually transitioning to silvopasture or secondary forest. Understanding growth characteristics of trees on these lands is important for proper management.

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Woody Understory Plant Diversity in Pure and Mixed Native Tree Plantations at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

Background

This study compares the species richness, abundance, and seed disperal method of individuals growing in the understory of native single-species plantations, native mixed-species plantations, and naturally regenerating (non-planted) areas of the La Selva biological station in Costa Rica.

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Restoration of dry tropical forests in Central America: A review of pattern and process

Background

Much information on restoration and management exists for wet tropical forests of Central America but comparatively little work has been done in the dry forests of this region. Such information is critical for reforestation efforts that are now occurring throughout Central America. This paper describes processes of degradation due to land use and provides a conceptual framework for the restoration of dry tropical forest, of which less than 2% remains intact.

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Understory Development in Young Cordia alliodora Plantations

background

This article presents the findings of a study evaluating the biomass and composition of understory plants in 1- and 5- year old plantations at the La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica.

Reserach Goals & Methods

This study sampled plantations of Cordia alliodora in monoculture plots and in polyculture plots with trees interplanted with monocots (Euterpe macrospadix, Euterpe oleracea, and Heliconia imbricata).

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Effects of Artificial Roosts for Frugivorous Bats on Seed Dispersal in a Neotropical Forest Pasture Mosaic

background

This article evaluates whether the installation of bat roosts into abandoned pasture sites can attract frigivorous bats into pasture areas and encourage seed rain of early-successional plant species.

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Postdispersal Seed Fate of Tropical Montane Trees in an Agricultural Landscape, Southern Costa Rica

background

This study seeks to understand postdispersal seed fate in Montane Costa Rica in order to better identify factors driving forest regeneration.

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Factors Limiting Tropical Rain Forest Regeneration in Abandoned Pasture: Seed Rain, Seed Germination, Microclimate, and Soil

background

This research evaluates the ability of seeds to be dispersed into and germinate in areas of abandoned pasture.

Research Goals & Methods

Seed rain, germination of tree seedlings, percent herbaceous and woody cover, soil moisture, phosphorous, air temperature, and other microclimate conditions were tested in plots located 250m and 25m from the forest edge as well as within the primary forest.

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Paying for Environmental Services: An Analysis of Participation in Costa Rica's PSA Program

background

This study evaluates demographic and other factors that played a role in the participation of households in Costa Rica's Payment for Environmental Services program.

Research Goals & Methods

The authors rely on economic analysis of technology adoption and farm and forestry program participation to assign variables and draw conclusions.

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Farmer Participation in Reforestation Incentive Programs in Costa Rica

background

This article evaluates the participation of farm households in reforestation incentive programs in Costa Rica from 1988 to 1995. The Forestry Bond Certificate in Advance (CAFa) was started in 1988 as a grant of 100,000 colones per hectare (it increased to 120,000 colones per hectare) for reforestation to be disbursed over 5 years of plantation establishment. The Forestry Development Fund (FDF) was initiated in 1989 and offers 58,000 colones per hectare over 3 years for reforestation.

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