Philippines

Designing Mixed Species Tree Plantations for the Tropics: Balancing Ecological Attributes of Species with Landholder Preferences in the Philippines

background

This paper reports on the assessment of forest stands planted as part of the Rainforestation Farming Program and the management of plantations by local landowners regarding the original intent of planting.

Research Goals & Methods

Data was collected beginning 6-11 years after initial plot planting. Forest stands were evaluated for structure and floristic composition. Subsequent measurements were taken in 2008 and 2012.

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Biodiversity–Productivity Relationships in Small-Scale Mixed-Species Plantations Using Native Species in Leyte Province, Philippines

background

The growth of tropical reforestation in recent decades has given rise to a debate between the relative productivity, biodiversity, and general merits of mixed-species vs. single-species plantations. To further investigate the relationship between tree species diversity, productivity, and abiotic factors such as climate and soil, this study investigated the growth of mixed-species plantations in Leyte province in the Philippines. These smallholder plantations were planted in 1992 to meet social, economic, and environmental needs through the Rainforestation Farming system.

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Between Cash and Usufruct Rights: In Search of an Appropriate Policy Instrument for Sustained Local People's Participation

Background

This study examines a reforestation program that was launched in the Philippines funded by the Asian Development Bank in 1988. Contract restoration and incentive mechanisms were introduced to include the participation of civic and local community groups in reforestation. 

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Gmelina Boom, Farmers Doom: Tree growers risks, coping strategies and options

Background

The widespread smallholder tree plantations of Gmelina arborea established in the South Philippines in the 1980s led to price boom and bust cycles rather than the expected economic returns for growers. This study evaluates grower responses to the timber price bubbles of the 1990s and recommends policy responses.

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Afforestation and Reforestation Projects in South and South-East Asia Under the Clean Development Mechanism: Trends and Development Opportunities

background

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was created as part of the 2007 Kyoto Protocol to assist countries in achieving both development and sustainability. Afforestation and reforestation (AR) projects are a part of the CDM protocal, but can be challenging to implement and measure.

research goals & methods

This study reports on survey results regarding CDM-AR projects. Surveys were conducted in South and South-east Asia of both (i) experts and (ii) developers, investors, and consultants.

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Taungya in the Philippines

background

This book chapter provides a description of the ecological effects of deforestation in the Philippines and a history of the failed social forestry programs that began in the 1970s.

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One Century of Forest Rehabilitation in the Philippines: Approaches, Outcomes, and Lessons

background

This chapter provides a review of reforestation efforts in the Philippines, beginning with small-scale forest rehabilitation efforts since 1910. Reforestation was traditionally implemented by government and private companies. Since the mid-1970s, international funders have driven these efforts.

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Direct Seeding of Forest Trees in Grassland Communities of Carranglan, Luzon Island

background

This study concerns the survival of 12 native pioneer species and one exotic species when directly sown into grasslands (Themeda triandra and Imperata cylindrica grasses). They were monitored for 16 weeks . The Authors note that direct seeding studies are important because direct seeding is cheaper and faster than nursery propagation.

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Philippine Dipterocarp Forests

  • This study provides a detailed description of Philippine dipterocarp forests, including details on climatic conditions and composition in the first pages. Page 430 has a table of natural stand regeneration studies of a range of plots (natural and cut over), listing seedling numbers and size class distribution of 5 species in “virgin Negros rainforest” (Table 3); 7-10 species of Bataan are listed on p. 433-437 (Table V-VII), 6 species in Laguna are listed on p. 438-441 (Table VIII-IX), and multiple species of Mt Maquiling are listed on p. 444-450 (Table X-XII).
  • Succession pathways on cleared land are described starting on p. 451.
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A Preliminary Working Plan for the Public Forest Tract of the Mindoro Lumber and Logging Company, Bongabon, Mindoro, Philippine Islands

Summary

This is a Bureau of Forestry management plan for a 20-year concession held by the Mindoro Lumber and Logging Company. The document provides site description, descriptions of different forest types, stand types, and tree species, yield tables for different forest types, brief financial analysis, and description of minor forest products. (wood properties, growth habit, etc)

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