General

Prioritizing sites for ecological restoration based on ecosystem services

Background

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When is a forest a forest? Forest concepts and definitions in the era of forest and landscape restoration

Background

This article highlights the importance of creating forest definitions--what is meant by forest, what is meant by forest loss, what is meant by forest restoration--in order to create a conceptual, institutional, legal and operational basis for forest policies and interventions.

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The Restoration of Forest Biodiversity and Ecological Values

Background

Throughout Asia there has been significant push to restore degraded lands yet many of these initiatives lack clear objectives. This paper explores the failures that have emerged from this trend, paying close attention to restoration schemes that were politically driven and unsuccessful in yielding the economic and environmental benefits due to the lack of clarity in defining the precise restoration objectives.

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Vital Landscape Attributes: Missing Tools for Restoration Ecology

Background

The authors introduce a series of 16 candidates quantifiable attributes, named “vital landscape attributes” (VLAs), for evaluating the results of ecological restoration or rehabilitation undertaken with a landscape perspectives. VLAs provide quantitative indicators of levels of landscape degradation. VLAs aim to monitor and compare restoration or rehabilitation projects whether or not the project designers fully realized the importance of a landscape perspective.

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Motivations for the Restoration of Ecosystems

Background

The underlying reasons to restore ecosystems are numerous yet they remain understated and unappreciated. Therefore, this article attempts to answer the question of why ecosystems are restored. The authors recognize and explore 5 rationales or motivations for restoration: technocratic, biotic, heuristic, idealistic and pragmatic

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Edge‐effects Drive Tropical Forest Fragments Towards an Early‐Successional System

Background

This paper assembles empirical and theoretical evidence to argue that “edge effects” trigger a rapid and inevitable successional process that drives most remaining neotropical forest fragments towards a persistent early-successional system. 

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Before Bonn and beyond: the history and future of forest landscape restoration

Background

This article presents an overview of the history of restoration at an international scale. It begins with the origins of forestry in 1990s and goes to the landmark decision in 2011 to establish the Bonn Challenge. The authors focus specifically on the emergence of forest landscape restoration and how this concept has evolved over time. 

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Forest Landscape Restoration: Progress in the Last Decade and Remaining Challenges

Background

Defined in 2000, forest landscape restoration (FLR) has recently been actively promoted as a means to provide both ecolocial and societal benefits. This article aims to reflect on the evolution of FLR since 2000, using a framework of 13 key issues put forth in 2005. It identifies both progress and challenges and provides suggestions for steps forward. 

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Restoring tropical forests from the bottom up

Background

Written in 2017, this article acknowledges that numerous countries around the world have committed to restoring large areas of forest in the next decade or so. Given these challenging targets, the authors seeks to understand how they can be met given competing land uses. She draws on several case studies to answer this broad question, including ones from Brazil, Mexico, and Colombia. 

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Strategic Insights for Capacity Development on Forest Landscape Restoration: Implications for Addressing Global Commitments

Background

Global initiatives, like the Aichi Targets and Bonn Challenge, have recognized capacity development as a key strategy in achieving the large-scale restoration goals, particularly those that utilize the complex forest landscape restoration (FLR) approach. Still though, the concept of capacity development is largely undefined. This article seeks to answer key questions in regards to integrating capacity development strategies into FLR projects. 

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