Seeds, Nurseries and Planting

Restoring tropical forests on lands mined for bauxite: Examples from the Brazilian Amazon

Background:

Effective forest restoration is required to avoid the adverse environmental impacts of mining. However, restorationists working in most tropical regions lack the requisite knowledge of species selection and disturbance ecology to aid in mimicking the pre-disturbed ecosystem.  One noteworthy exception to this is the forest restoration initiative created by a Brazilian bauxite mining company operating at Trombetas in Pará State, central Amazonia, since the early 1980s.

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Maximizing biodiversity conservation and carbon stocking inrestored tropical forests

Background:

Ecological restoration plays a critical role in fragmented mega-diverse regions, particularly for endangered species with low dispersal rates. Species with impoverished populations, limited dispersal capacity, and important functionsas food resources for animals should be prioritized for active reintroduction in order to increase the conservation value ofrestored forests. However, seedlings from these species are often hard to find or too costly to include in many restoration projects.

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Direct seeded and colonizing species guarantee successful early restoration of South Amazon forests

Background

South Amazon forests have been highly deforested, including the legally protected riparian forests. Direct seeding is a low cost method, easy-to-implement at large scale. The authors emphasize the imperative to reduce the costs and enhance the outcomes of restoration efforts, which have become mainstream solutions in countering biodiversity loss and climate change around the world.

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Tree Communities in Three-Year-Old Post-Mining Sites Under Different Forest Restoration Techniques in the Brazilian Amazon

Background:

Mining has been identified as a major contributor to forest loss, leading to the need for effective restoration techniques in post-mining sites. In this context, the knowledge of floristic composition is crucial for managing natural regeneration, selecting species for restoration plantings, and aiding conservation programs of threatened plant species. One well-known example of mining impacts on the Amazon rainforest vegetation is located in the Paragominas municipality, Pará, Brazil.

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Seed removal, seed dispersers, and the allocation of tissues in Myrtaceae seeds

Background

Plants allocate resources to protective seed tissues in order to avoid seed death and ensure successful reproduction. Myrtaceae is an abundant plant family in the Brazilian Atlantic forest with many species producing fleshy fruits that are attractive to birds, rodents, and other mammals. Myrtaceae species may adapt seed characteristics to avoid predation.

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Density-dependent reproductive success among sympatric dipterocarps during a major mast fruiting event

Background

Masting or mast fruiting is the annual synchronous production of many seeds by a plant species. Masting is an important reproductive strategy that depends on the intensity of flowering and fruiting, as well as the seeds’ ability to survive herbivory and competition with other seeds. Southeast Asia, many tree species (particularly Dipterocarps) are known to synchronize their masting events and therefore, community-wide seed density is an important factor predicting successful reproduction.

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Overcoming biotic homogenization in ecological restoration

Background

Regional, or gamma, diversity is often lower in restored landscapes compared to reference landscapes due to the selection of few desirable species for planting. Lowered diversity in restored landscapes is leading to overall biotic homogenization which puts ecosystems and humans in a more vulnerable position for adapting to environmental changes.

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Selecting tree species to restore forest under climate change conditions: Complementing species distribution models with field experimentation

Background

Climate-based species distribution models are used as a strategy to decide on optimal tree species for forest restoration projects. The criteria in these models is based on species performance in local climates. The limitation of species distribution models is that they do not include recruitment. Including the species successful reproduction, recruitment and growth at an early stage is vital for successful reforestation efforts. In addition, the models are not calibrated to take into account future climatic conditions, making it difficult to plan long-term restoration projects.

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Maximizing Seed Resources for Restoration in an Uncertain Future

Background

Forest loss is being experienced in many parts of the globe. Seed based plant restoration is now the goal of many land management agencies. There is a growing demand for seed to meet these restoration projects. The effects of climate change on seed availability, viability and the success of these restoration projects is still unknown.

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Nursery and Establishment Techniques as Factors in Productivity of Man-made Forests in Southern Africa

BACKGROUND

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