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Green economy, oil palm development, and the exclusion of Indigenous swidden cultivators in the Philippines

Background

Green economy programs involve agro-industrial development in land frontiers for activities that are considered low-carbon or as seen as supporting greenhouse gas reduction. In the Philippines, as in many parts of South-East Asia, oil palm plantations are promoted as a form of green growth, contributing to food security and biofuels while meeting reforestation goals on lands that are often classified as idle, or waste, but may not be in practice. The paper explores the implications of oil palm development on land tenure security of smallholder swidden cultivators from indigenous communities.

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Context in land matters: The effects of history on land formalizations

Background

Land formalization is the process by which governments grant legal rights to land, along with responsibilities and conditions of access through land titles and other official documents. This process typically establishes or re-establishes the authority of the state over the governance of land. This paper draws on examples from Africa and Asia to illustrate how land formalization has differing impacts on a diverse set of claimants, and largely increases inequity.

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Coffee Farming and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Impacts, Forecasts, Resilience and Opportunities

Introduction

This document is the outcome of a two-year project by the Strategic Climate Institutions Programme (SCIP). The project aimed to established strategies for a climate-resilient coffee economy in Ethiopia in which the effects of various climate change factors on coffee production and wild coffee forests were acccessed. 

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Nursery management, tree propagation and marketing: A training manual for smallholder farmers and nursery operators

Introduction

Published by ICRAF, this manual is intended to provide training support aimed at farmers and nursery operators to promote the propogation and establishment of small-scale nurseries. 

Goals & Methods

To achieve the aim of encouraging superior techniques and materials for superior planting, the document offers five modules. Each module covers a different step in the nursery establishment process, from sourcing and selecting seeds to establishing a nursery business. 

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Biofuels: The Impact of Oil Palm on Forests and Climate

Background

This publication summarizes the proceedings of a 2009 conference held Singapore titled "Biofuels: The Impact of Oil Palm on Forests and Climate". With the emergence of palm oil industry, particularly in Asia, there has been a strong debate concerning the ability of this and other biofuels to reduce greenhouse gases but also its contribution to large-scale land conversion. This conference aimed to bring together experts from various fields to discuss potential solutions or alternatives to the industry. The report summarizes the opening remarks of the conference along with four panels, each of which were based on a specific question.  

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Industrial Resource Extraction and Infrastructure Development in Tropical Forests

Background

This publication summarizes the proceedings of a 2012 conference held in Panama City, Panama titled "Industrial Resource Extraction and Infrastructure Development in Tropical Forests" The conference sought to explore how the continued increase in economic interest in natural resource extraction can be beneficial connected to the protection of tropical forests. The conference gathered scientists, decision makers, academics, government officials, representatives from NGOs and the private sector, and community and indigenous leaders and involved opening and closing remarks along with four panels. 

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Drug Policy as Conservation Policy: Narco-Deforestation

Background

Central America exploded into prominence as a drug trafficking corridor in the last decade. The authors documented that an unprecedented flow of cocaine into Central America “coincided with a period of extensive forest loss”. The authors discuss the evidence that supports the idea that "trafficking of drugs (principally cocaine) has become a crucial—and overlooked—accelerant of forest loss” in Central America.

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Impact of Forest Management on Species Richness: Global Meta-Analysis and Economic Trade-offs

Background

This study is a meta-analysis of data from forests managed for timber harvest to assess the conservation value of these forests. From processing data from 287 published studies they rank the following forest management systems from best to worst in terms of conservation value: selection and retention systems, reduced impact logging, conventional selective logging, clear-cutting, agroforestry, timber plantations, fuelwood plantations. They also conducted analysis of net present value in these same systems and found unsurprisingly that the ranking for net present value was different.

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Abreha Weatsbeha Community Ethiopia: Equator Initiative Case Studies. Sustainable Development Solutions for people, nature and resilient communities

Background

This report from UNDP is intended to "the the full story ofhow (innovative sustainable developments solutions) evolve,the breadth of their impacts (and) how they change over time" through the case study of Abreha we Atsbeha in Ethiopia. Out of 800 contestants, the community in Abreha we Atsbeha was awarded the Equator Prize in along with US$20,000 in 2012 in recognition of their tremendous work on the restoration of degraded land and subsequent increases in food security, nutrition, and local livelihoods.

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Shade-grown coffee in Puerto Rico: Opportunities to preserve biodiversity while reinvigorating a struggling agricultural commodity

Background

Coffee has been a traditional crop in Puerto Rico since the mid-1700s. As the global market became more competitive in the 20th century, the Puerto Rican government provided subsidies and policies to protect the sector as well as promoted the transition to shade grown coffee for higher yields in the 1980s. The researchers surveyed 100 farms and 5 agronomists to determine attitudes about this transition.

Open access copy available
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