Economic issues

Anything but a story foretold: multiple politics of resistance to the agrarian extractivist project in Guatemala

Background

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Green Grabbing: a new appropriation of nature?

Background

The authors introduce a set of papers which collectively discuss discourses and processes surrounding the transfer of ownership, user rights, or control over land and resources to meet environmental goals such as the production of biofuels or carbon sequestration, dispossessing some of their land while contributing to increasing the accumulation of property for others. The papers were originally presented at the International Conference on Global Land Grabbing and contribute to existing debates around land grabbing by building on the concept of ‘green grabbing’, wherein the appropriation of land is justified on environmental grounds.

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Green economy, oil palm development, and the exclusion of Indigenous swidden cultivators in the Philippines

Background

Green economy programs involve agro-industrial development in land frontiers for activities that are considered low-carbon or as seen as supporting greenhouse gas reduction. In the Philippines, as in many parts of South-East Asia, oil palm plantations are promoted as a form of green growth, contributing to food security and biofuels while meeting reforestation goals on lands that are often classified as idle, or waste, but may not be in practice. The paper explores the implications of oil palm development on land tenure security of smallholder swidden cultivators from indigenous communities.

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Context in land matters: The effects of history on land formalizations

Background

Land formalization is the process by which governments grant legal rights to land, along with responsibilities and conditions of access through land titles and other official documents. This process typically establishes or re-establishes the authority of the state over the governance of land. This paper draws on examples from Africa and Asia to illustrate how land formalization has differing impacts on a diverse set of claimants, and largely increases inequity.

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Restoring Forests For Communities, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services

Background

This publication summarizes the proceedings of a 2011 conference held in Bogor, Indonesia titled "Restoring Forests For Communities, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services". The aim of the conference was to provide a space in which forest restoration approaches used in Indonesia and elsewhere in Southeast Asia were shared and discussed. The report includes summaries of the opening and closing remarks along with the conference's seven presentations. 

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Mainstreaming Native Species-Based Forest Restoration

Background

This publication summarizes the proceedings of a 2010 conference held in the Phillipines titled "Mainstreaming Native Species-Based Forest Restoration", which aimed to provide technical expertise and experience with restoration and reforestation practices for tropical forests in order to address the country's forest cover decline. The report summarizes the events of the two days, including two opening remarks, six presentations, and five panels. 

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Industrial Resource Extraction and Infrastructure Development in Tropical Forests

Background

This publication summarizes the proceedings of a 2012 conference held in Panama City, Panama titled "Industrial Resource Extraction and Infrastructure Development in Tropical Forests" The conference sought to explore how the continued increase in economic interest in natural resource extraction can be beneficial connected to the protection of tropical forests. The conference gathered scientists, decision makers, academics, government officials, representatives from NGOs and the private sector, and community and indigenous leaders and involved opening and closing remarks along with four panels. 

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Drug Policy as Conservation Policy: Narco-Deforestation

Background

Central America exploded into prominence as a drug trafficking corridor in the last decade. The authors documented that an unprecedented flow of cocaine into Central America “coincided with a period of extensive forest loss”. The authors discuss the evidence that supports the idea that "trafficking of drugs (principally cocaine) has become a crucial—and overlooked—accelerant of forest loss” in Central America.

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Towards a Synthesized Critique of Neoliberal Biodiversity Conservation

Background

This paper seeks to review critiques concerning neoliberal biodiversity conservation. The author sees two reasons for this review. First off, the majority of focus has been on neoliberal natures and neoliberal environment instead of neoliberal conservation. Second, there has been recent papers that explore the latter but the lessons are disconnected. Thus, this review seeks to analyze and provide connections among an emerging field. 

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Business models for sustainable investments in the context of tropical forest restoration

Background

This paper outlines the context and approaches of effective business models for sustainable investments in Tropical Forests. Triple bottom line business opportunities are defined and identified through a review of literature and analysis of three case studies (InIkea, FCFR Project, and Sustain Project). The conceptual frameworks surrounding sustainable business models are examined. Challenges and opportunities into the future are also explored.

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