Payments for Ecoystem Services

Potential for low-cost carbon removal through tropical reforestation

background

The UNFCCC COP21 (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties) created the Paris Agreement in 2015, which pledges to “limit global warming to well below 2, preferably 1.5 °C.” For this to happen, we must both reduce how much carbon dioxide (CO2) that is released and find ways to capture CO2 that is already in the atmosphere. This study explores two ways this might happen using Nature-based Solutions: tree planting in the form of reforestation and afforestation, and the prevention of deforestation. 

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Fairly efficient, efficiently fair: Lessons from designing and testing payment schemes for ecosystem services in Asia

Background

Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) is defined as a market-based approach yet the authors argue that it cannot be generalized or implements and often suffers due to the commoditization of these services.

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Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) in Latin America: Analysing the performance of 40 case studies

Background

Payment of Ecosystem Services (PES), which encourages landowners improve land management through market incentives, has been implemented around the world since the 1990s. This high investment requires an analysis of PES schemes and their outcomes.

Goals & Methods

The goal of the paper is to inform policy and provide decisions makers with insights on PES in order to aid in future design and ensure the success of initiatives. To do this, the authors review 40 cases of PES throughout Latin America based on a consistent set of criteria.

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Can short-term payments for ecosystem services deliver long-term tree cover change?

Background

While payment for ecosystem services (PES) has been lauded has been an effective strategy, particularly to increase tree cover in agricultural areas. Yet, there has been limited evaluation of long-term success, such as that after the payment period.

Goals & Methods

To determine the the long-term effectiveness of PES, the author compares tree cover before and after 13 years of a PES project that promoted silvopastoral systems in Colombia, which was quantified via satellite images.

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Leaders in Action: Success Stories from the Tropics

Background

The Environmental Leadership and Training Initiative (ELTI) seeks to seeks to train and support people to restore and conserve tropical forest landscapes. Since 2006, the organizations has engaged with thousands of people both through their in-person and online training platforms and through follow-up support and mentorship. This paper highlights select inspirational stories from ELTI alum. These stories come from the Neotropics, including Panama, Colombia, and Brazil, and Asia, including Indonesia, Singapore, and the Phillipines.  

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Impacts of payments for environmental services on local development in northern Costa Rica: A fuzzy multi-criteria analysis

Background

This paper evaluates the impacts of reforestation projects conducted through Costa Rica's Payment for Environmental Services (PSA) program, which pays landowners for different forest uses. The researchers developed an evaluaton framework that was first based on a set of prinicipals (economic, social, institutional, biological) that were in-term subdivided into different categories. These evaluation criteria were evaluated and weighted through the help of local experts, then used to guide a series of landowner interviews.

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China’s Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program for Household Delivery of Ecosystem Services: How Important is a Local Implementation Regime to Survival Rate Outcomes?

Background

In response to catastrophic droughts in the lat 1990s, China launched one of the largest afforestation-based Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) progrms. Much research around this program has focused on the impact on rural welfare. This study, on the other hand, examines the tree survival rates during the “Grain for Green” Program based on socio-economic data of the single households.

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Restoration of Degraded Tropical Forest Landscapes

Background

Deforestation and the declining extent of tropical forests has negatively impacted ecosystem functions, services, and goods and has disproportionately harmed the rural poor of tropical countries. In the wake of deforestation, agricultural development and traditional methods of reforestation (plantations) have largely failed to provide sustainable livelihoods. This review article assesses the strengths and weaknesses of different tropical restoration methods to combat forest degredation and address rural poverty.

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Fonds Environnementaux et Paiement Pour Les Services Ecosystemiques (Environmental Funds and Payments for Ecosystem Services)

The authors discuss environmental funds and the possibility of using payments for ecosystem services towards conservation efforts. They provided several case studies to demonstrate different systems of payments for ecosystem services and gave recommendations.

 

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Formations boisées et savanes africaines: opportunités et potentialités de la REDD+ (Wooded formations and African savannas: opportunities and potential of REDD+)

The authors provide an overview of the REDD+ program and deforestation in Africa. They addressed limitations fo REDD+ and noted that because each community is different, each project must be tailored to the individual needs of communities.

 

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