Climate Change

Overcoming biotic homogenization in ecological restoration

Background

Regional, or gamma, diversity is often lower in restored landscapes compared to reference landscapes due to the selection of few desirable species for planting. Lowered diversity in restored landscapes is leading to overall biotic homogenization which puts ecosystems and humans in a more vulnerable position for adapting to environmental changes.

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Legacy effects of canopy gaps on liana abundance 25 years later in a seasonal tropical evergreen forest in northeastern Thailand

Background

Lianas or woody vine species are abundant in tropical forests. They depend on trees for stability to grow and climb to the canopy. While lianas depend on trees for growth, they also require canopy gaps at early growing stages to satisfy their high demand for sunlight. At times, lianas occupy new treefall gaps densely enough to prevent tree regeneration. Tree host ability may influence the abundance of lianas in Southeast Asian seasonally dry tropical forests.

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Selecting tree species to restore forest under climate change conditions: Complementing species distribution models with field experimentation

Background

Climate-based species distribution models are used as a strategy to decide on optimal tree species for forest restoration projects. The criteria in these models is based on species performance in local climates. The limitation of species distribution models is that they do not include recruitment. Including the species successful reproduction, recruitment and growth at an early stage is vital for successful reforestation efforts. In addition, the models are not calibrated to take into account future climatic conditions, making it difficult to plan long-term restoration projects.

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Understanding the value and limitations of nature-based solutions to climate change and other global challenges

background

Nature-based Solutions (NbS) are initiatives that work with nature to adapt to environmental and climate challenges. NbS have grown in popularity in recent years, and are generally seen as a promising way to address the effects of climate change. Nature-based Solutions are also seen as a way to help countries achieve their Nationally-Determined Contributions (NDCs). Outlined by the UN Paris Agreement in 2016, NDCs are nations’ individual pledges to reduce CO2 emissions and adapt to climate change.

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Compensatory Afforestation in Odisha, India: A political ecology of forest restoration

Background

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Potential for low-cost carbon removal through tropical reforestation

background

The UNFCCC COP21 (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties) created the Paris Agreement in 2015, which pledges to “limit global warming to well below 2, preferably 1.5 °C.” For this to happen, we must both reduce how much carbon dioxide (CO2) that is released and find ways to capture CO2 that is already in the atmosphere. This study explores two ways this might happen using Nature-based Solutions: tree planting in the form of reforestation and afforestation, and the prevention of deforestation. 

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A systematic review of the socio-economic impacts of large-scale tree plantations, worldwide

Background

Large-scale tree plantations can provide raw material for industries and support climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. However, they can have positive and negative ecological and socioeconomic impacts. This paper presents the findings on a systematic review of literature on the socioeconomic impacts of large-scale tree plantations.

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Ecologies of the colonial present: Pathological forestry from the taux de boisement to civilized plantations

Background

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Why do foresters plant trees? Testing theories of bureaucratic decision-making in central India

Background

There is a long history of tree planting in India, and it continues to be favored by policy makers and bureaucrats at the state level. However, the author points out that the popularity of tree plantations is puzzling in the Indian case because firstly, it does not seem aligned with the goals of India’s forest policies which tend to emphasize ecosystem services rather than timber production and secondly, many degraded areas can regenerate naturally and do not require plantings to regenerate. This paper examines why tree plantations continue to be popular among state-level forest departments in India and how they are implemented in the field.

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Anything but a story foretold: multiple politics of resistance to the agrarian extractivist project in Guatemala

Background

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