Land Use Practices

The Contribution of Traditional Agroforestry to Climate Change Adaptation in the Ecuadorian Amazon: The Chakra System

Background

This article explores the amazonian-indigenous "chakra" agroforestry system, and its utility as a forest management practice that sequesters carbon, increases food security, grows valuable timber, and acts as a habitat connectivity. The size of these cultivated areas range from 0.4 - 4ha, and include species such as anioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), banana (Musa paradisiaca L.), peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth), fine-flavored cacao (Theobroma cacaoL.) and robusta coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner), and a variety of medicinals.

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Trade-offs in nature tourism: contrasting parcel-level decisions with landscape conservation planning

Background

This article discusses the trade-offs linked to nature tourism in Monteverde, Costa Rica. Nature tourism has been used for promoting conservation in Costa Rica since the 1970s when it was adopted into developmental policy. Tourism is now the largest industry in Costa Rica; but is nature tourism an effective way to preserve ecosystem services and promote economic benefits? The study area includes Monteverde (an ecotourism town near the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve), San Luis (a coffee and dairy farming community), and Guacimal (economy based on cattle ranching and dairy).

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Factors influencing community participation in mangroves restoration: A contingent valuation analysis

Background

This paper analyzes the willingness of a household to participate and pay for the benefits of a mangrove restoration program in the West Coast of India. In the second half of the twentieth century, this region has been threatened by shrimp cultivation, industrial development and hydroelectric projects, which overall made mangroves recede substantially.

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Does tree planting change minds? Assessing the use of community participation in reforestation to address illegal logging in West Kalimantan

Background

In this study, Pohnan et al. evaluated the social impacts of the local NGO Alam Sehat Lestari (ASRI) restoration program that took place in Gunung Palung National Park in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, an area that host numerous endangered species and that has been degraded by illegal logging for the past several decades.

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Social Capital in Biodiversity Conservation and Management

Background

The article begins with a description of the opposing views of the roles of smallholders in conservation strategies.  On the one hand they directly use resources that external agencies attempt to protect, on the other hand these people have intimate knowledge of these systems.  Thus leading to the question, “Could local people play a greater role in biodiversity conservation and management?” (Pretty, 2004).

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An ecological integrity assessment of a Brazilian Atlantic Forest watershed based on surveys of stream health and local farmers' perceptions: implications for management

Background

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The Restoration of Forest Biodiversity and Ecological Values

Background

Throughout Asia there has been significant push to restore degraded lands yet many of these initiatives lack clear objectives. This paper explores the failures that have emerged from this trend, paying close attention to restoration schemes that were politically driven and unsuccessful in yielding the economic and environmental benefits due to the lack of clarity in defining the precise restoration objectives.

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Strategies for empowering the local people to participate in forest restoration

Background

This study examined how local people’s involvement in determining and establishing appropriate reforestation techniques and practices can yield positive results. The study also examined the conditions for local people’s willingness to participate in implementing such techniques in their practices. The study was conducted in 10 villages surrounding Mabira Forest Reserve located in Central Uganda.

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Environmentality: Community, Intimate Government, and the Making of Environmental Subjects in Kumaon, India

Background

Agrawal writes about the relationship between government and subjectivity, particularly about the processes that create “environmental subjects” (people who care about the environment), using an example of changing interests in forest protection following the creation of community-forest management groups in Kumaon, India.

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Evaluation of a rural development project in Southwest Cochabamba, Bolivia, and its agroforestry activities involving Polylepis besseri and other native species – a decade of lessons learned

Background

This report evaluates the results of the PROSANA project (GTZ/Department of Cochabamba) that ran for a 10-year period until the early 2000’s, and its attempts to combat food insecurity and promote conservation of relic forests and the restoration of agroecosystem function by planting mixed forests including Polylepis besseri. Well-adapted socio-ecological systems started to degrade in the region centuries ago with forced relocation of populations to higher, steep slopes and the introduction of European sheep and goats. Presently, firewood collection and grazing prevent the recovery of ecosystems.

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