Payments for Ecoystem Services

Restoration of ecosystem services and biodiversity: conflicts and opportunities

Background

Although the science and practice of ecological restoration have developed rapidly, the emerging policy focus on ecosystem services represents a significant shift in the objectives of restoration. This might result in both conflicts and opportunities. This review article explores in detail the implications of this policy shift by examining whether ecological restoration could be effective in reversing the decline of ecosystem services along with biodiversity.

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A regeneração natural como um serviço do ecossistema: uma proposta metodológica para o seu cálculo (Natural regeneration as an ecosystem service: a methodological proposal for its calculation)

background

This study begins by stating that the economic quantification of ecosystem services is a crucial step towards their sustainable use.

research goals & methods

The study pairs the quantified value of ecosystem services with the process of ecological restoration to attempt to calculate the value of natural regeneration. Both comparative and analytical approaches are used.

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Ganadería Colombiana Sostenible (Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Sustainable Cattle Ranching)

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Appropriate Measures for Conservation of Terrestrial Carbon Stocks: Analysis of Trends of Forest Management in Southeast Asia

background

The ASEAN countries of Southeast Asia have seen rapid deforestation and subsequent carbon losses in the past few decades, as lands are cleared for other land uses. This study analyzes the implications of different land management scenarios on carbon stocks.

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Restoration of Degraded Tropical Forest Landscapes

Background

The rapid loss and degradation of tropical forests has been one of the defining features of the 20th century, with an estimated 350 million ha deforested and another 500 million ha (primary and secondary forest) in degraded status. There have been three major responses to this process: expanding protected areas; improving agricultural productivity on cultivated and abandoned lands; and plantation-style reforestation using a very limited number of species. These methods have proven unsuccessful in slowing the rate of deforestation or providing adequately for livelihoods.

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Environmental Services of Native Tree Plantations and Agroforestry Systems in Central America

Background

Plantations and agroforestry systems supply wood and environmental services such as carbon sequestration and recovery of biodiversity. At the time of writing (2004), Central American countries were developing systems of payments for environmental services to encourage the development of these systems.

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Payments for Environmental Services in Latin America as a Tool for Restoration and Rural Development

Background

Two Payments for Environmental Services (PES) projects are assessed in this article: 1) a bundled PES system in forestry projects in Costa Rica, and 2) the Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Approaches to Ecosystem Management Project in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Colombia. The first project based PED on the provision of four different environmental services (carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, watershed protection, and aesthetic improvements and/or maintenance of the landscape) within the same plot of land. The second project implemented PES proportional to carbon sequestration and biodiversity outputs by participants.

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Promoting Biodiversity Co-Benefits in REDD

background

This article describes the potential for maximizing biodiversity conservation as a co-benefit of REDD (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation).

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Decentralized Payments for Environmental Services: The cases of Pimampiro and PROFAFOR in Ecuador

background

This article describes two payment for environmental services (PES) programs in Ecuador which, unlike programs run in other countries, are run by decentralized organizations: Pimampiro municipal watershed-protection scheme and PROFAFOR carbon-sequestration programme.

Research Goals & Methods

The authors conduct interviews, community workshops, and collect socioeconomic data to evaluate the programs for additionality (adding to conservation), welfare or poverty alleviation, and the control of leakage.

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Paying for Environmental Services: An Analysis of Participation in Costa Rica's PSA Program

background

This study evaluates demographic and other factors that played a role in the participation of households in Costa Rica's Payment for Environmental Services program.

Research Goals & Methods

The authors rely on economic analysis of technology adoption and farm and forestry program participation to assign variables and draw conclusions.

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