Policies

Policy Options for the World's Primary Forests in Multilateral Environmental Agreements

Background

Around the world, primary forest continue to decline. The authors of this article recognize that international forest policies is one means to slow or turn around these trends and thus they identify four new actions that can provide a policy foundation for key international negotiations.

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Industrial Resource Extraction and Infrastructure Development in Tropical Forests

Background

This publication summarizes the proceedings of a 2012 conference held in Panama City, Panama titled "Industrial Resource Extraction and Infrastructure Development in Tropical Forests" The conference sought to explore how the continued increase in economic interest in natural resource extraction can be beneficial connected to the protection of tropical forests. The conference gathered scientists, decision makers, academics, government officials, representatives from NGOs and the private sector, and community and indigenous leaders and involved opening and closing remarks along with four panels. 

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Drug Policy as Conservation Policy: Narco-Deforestation

Background

Central America exploded into prominence as a drug trafficking corridor in the last decade. The authors documented that an unprecedented flow of cocaine into Central America “coincided with a period of extensive forest loss”. The authors discuss the evidence that supports the idea that "trafficking of drugs (principally cocaine) has become a crucial—and overlooked—accelerant of forest loss” in Central America.

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Strengthening the national restoration strategy

Background

In response to the launch of the Bonn Challenge, El Salvador committed to restoring one million hectares. The country's Ministry of Natural Resources and IUCN applied Restoration Opportunity Assessment Methodology (ROAM) to El Salvador in order to determine and analyze restoration options based on biophysical, social and economic criteria. The paper summarizes the main results generated in the ROAM application. 

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When is a forest a forest? Forest concepts and definitions in the era of forest and landscape restoration

Background

This article highlights the importance of creating forest definitions--what is meant by forest, what is meant by forest loss, what is meant by forest restoration--in order to create a conceptual, institutional, legal and operational basis for forest policies and interventions.

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Trade-offs in nature tourism: contrasting parcel-level decisions with landscape conservation planning

Background

This article discusses the trade-offs linked to nature tourism in Monteverde, Costa Rica. Nature tourism has been used for promoting conservation in Costa Rica since the 1970s when it was adopted into developmental policy. Tourism is now the largest industry in Costa Rica; but is nature tourism an effective way to preserve ecosystem services and promote economic benefits? The study area includes Monteverde (an ecotourism town near the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve), San Luis (a coffee and dairy farming community), and Guacimal (economy based on cattle ranching and dairy).

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300,000 Hectares Restored in Shinyanga, Tanzania — but what did it really take to achieve this restoration?

Background

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The Restoration of Forest Biodiversity and Ecological Values

Background

Throughout Asia there has been significant push to restore degraded lands yet many of these initiatives lack clear objectives. This paper explores the failures that have emerged from this trend, paying close attention to restoration schemes that were politically driven and unsuccessful in yielding the economic and environmental benefits due to the lack of clarity in defining the precise restoration objectives.

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Land use transitions: Socio-ecological feedback versus socio-economic change

Background

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What drives the success of reforestation projects in tropical developing countries? The case of the Philippines

Background

This study reviewed cases and literatures to assess drivers that ultimately lead restoration projects to have successful outcomes. The main 4 categories of drivers are: technical/biophysical drivers, socio-economic drivers, institutional, policy and management drivers, and reforestation project characteristics. The major indicator of success are fall into two categories: environmental indicators and socio-economic indicators.

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