Policies

A Case Study Assessment of Agroforestry: The Panama Canal Watershed

background

This article provides a qualitative assessment of three agroforestry sites in the Panama Canal watershed based on management objectives, project life span, incentives, technology, economic feasibility, community involvement, and extension. It seeks to guide sustainable forest management options for the Panamanian government.

 

conclusions & takeaways

Environmental managers should view agroforestry as a production system and consider this in its social and biophysical context. 

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What Role Should Government Regulation Play in Ecological Restoration? Ongoing Debate in São Paulo State, Brazil

background

This article addresses the degree of detail that should be present in legislation dealing with reforestation and restoration, and if there is a relationship between technical content/scope of regulation and success of projects. The relationship between law and reforestation is also discussed. In São Paulo state, legislation establishes precise reforestation requirements, such as the use of a minimum of 80 species of native trees and the presence of specific proportions of functional groups. This is the only existing legislation known by the authors with this degree of technical detail.

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Payments for Environmental Services in Latin America as a Tool for Restoration and Rural Development

Background

Two Payments for Environmental Services (PES) projects are assessed in this article: 1) a bundled PES system in forestry projects in Costa Rica, and 2) the Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Approaches to Ecosystem Management Project in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Colombia. The first project based PED on the provision of four different environmental services (carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, watershed protection, and aesthetic improvements and/or maintenance of the landscape) within the same plot of land. The second project implemented PES proportional to carbon sequestration and biodiversity outputs by participants.

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Farm Forestry: An Alternative to Government-Driven Reforestation in the Philippines

Background

This study reviews literature and various case studies about growing trees at the farm level by rural farmers. In the Philippines, millions of dollars have gone to employ people to plant trees as part of reforestation programs while only about 10% of those planted areas are successful. The authors assert that paying people to plant trees is unsustainable and often hindered by the lack of prompt release of funding.

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Rehabilitation of Degraded Forest Ecosystems in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam: An Overview

background

This document describes reforestation policies and actions in the four countries of the lower Mekong river: Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, and Vietnam.

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Paying for Environmental Services: An Analysis of Participation in Costa Rica's PSA Program

background

This study evaluates demographic and other factors that played a role in the participation of households in Costa Rica's Payment for Environmental Services program.

Research Goals & Methods

The authors rely on economic analysis of technology adoption and farm and forestry program participation to assign variables and draw conclusions.

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Reforestation: Conclusions and Implications

Background

As the final chapter of the Reforesting Landscapes: Linking Pattern and Process (2010), this paper evaluates and reflects on the major research findings of the volume. It utilizes the case studies in preceeding chapters to evaluate commonalities in reforestation and to develop an interdisciplinary framework for future studies on reforestation. 

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Implications of Country-Level Decisions on the Specification of Crown Cover in the Definition of Forests for Land Area Eligible for Afforestation and Reforestation Activities in the CDM

background

According to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) with the Kyoto Protocol, reforestation may only occur on land that was not forested in 1990. This article evaluates how afforestation and reforestation (A/R) through the ENCOFOR project in four countries have approached the issue of "what is forest?" The authors highlight the uncertainty in the qualifications to be forest by presenting many different national or organizational definitions of forestland. Differences in the minimum crown cover needed to be classified as forest can affect the area available for reforestation under CDM.

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The Evolution of Reforestation in Brazil

background

This article describes the history of incentives for reforestation in Brazil from the 1970s through 2001.

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On the Restoration of High Diversity Forests: 30 years of Experience in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

background

This review evaluates the restoration of Brazil's Atlantic forest by drawing from published and unpublished sources. Reforestation in Atlantic Brazil took place in phases: government-sponsored plantations predominated until 1982; a focus on native species plantations from 1982-1985; higher diversity of species used from 1985 to 2000; a focus on restoring process rather than copying the structure of natural forests from 2000-2003; and finally a conscious effort to improve intraspecific genetic diversity and seed acquisition from 2003 to today.

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