Small and Medium Enterprises

Local ecological knowledge of trees on farms, constraints and opportunities for further integratino in Tigray Region, northern Ethiopia: A Case Study of smallholder farmers in Abreha Wa Atsbeha and Adi Gudom

Background

The paper compared two Ethiopian sites with differing levels of on-farm tree adoption: Abreha we Atsbeha (high adoption) and Adi Gudom (low adoption). The author used a knowledge-based systems approach involving participatory rural appraisal, focus group discussions, and semi-structured interviews.  In both sites, farmers planted trees on their holdings for income generation, user rights, and direct benefits, and they planted trees on communal lands to comply with government policies, improve soil fertility and water harvesting, improve land for redistribution, and improve aesthetics. 

Open access copy available

Modelling Deforestation in Dzalanyama Forest Reserve, Lilongwe, Malawi: Using Multi-agent Simulation Approach

Background

The Dzalanyama Forest Reserve is a 90,000 + hectare area in Lilongwe, Malwi. There has been an increase in charcoal production in the area leading to land cover transitions in the reserve, particularly that forest cover decreased by 22,000 ha over a twenty year span between 1990 and 2010. 

Open access copy available

Understanding Forest Transition in the Philippines: Main Farm-Level Factors Influencing Smallholder’s Capacity and Intention to Plant Native Timber Trees

Background

Small-scale farmers' decisions on when, where, and how to plant trees in their use of natural, human, and capital resources is critical to understand as part of any forest transition trajectory. This paper studies these questions in the Philippines.  

Available with subscription or purchase

Agroforestry Adoption in Haiti: The Importance of Household and Farm Characteristics

background

During the last century, the forest cover of Haiti has decreased from 8-10% of total land area to under 2%. This has serious implications for a nation with rapid population growth, 70% of the population living in rural areas, and 63% of the land is steeply sloping. Intensive agriculture on steeply sloping lands without tree cover could lead to topsoil and fertility losses. To combat this problem, the government implemented a USAID-funded agroforestry program to encourage reforestation strategies such as hedgerows, tree seedlings, and top grafting on smallholder farms. 

Available with subscription or purchase

Tea Landscapes Adaptation Project

Background

In Malawi, tea plays a critical role in livelihoods yet climate change is increasingly challenging the longterm viability of the crop, which are then compounded by deforestation and soil erosion. 

Open access copy available

Biodiversity–Productivity Relationships in Small-Scale Mixed-Species Plantations Using Native Species in Leyte Province, Philippines

background

The growth of tropical reforestation in recent decades has given rise to a debate between the relative productivity, biodiversity, and general merits of mixed-species vs. single-species plantations. To further investigate the relationship between tree species diversity, productivity, and abiotic factors such as climate and soil, this study investigated the growth of mixed-species plantations in Leyte province in the Philippines. These smallholder plantations were planted in 1992 to meet social, economic, and environmental needs through the Rainforestation Farming system.

Open access copy available

Can tropical farmers reconcile subsistence needs with forest conservation?

background

Despite efforts to protect tropical rainforests through various policy initiatives, forests continue to face pressure from smallholders' subsistence needs, especially in montane regions. This paper proposes a means to turn abandoned montane pastoral land into productive agroforestry land as a viable alternative to further encroachment on existing forests.

Available with subscription or purchase

Smallholder perceptions of agroforestry projects in Panama

Background

Panama’s history of shifting slash-and-burn cultivation methods has resulted in rapid deforestation and declines in land fertility in the latter 20th C with an increased population and increased resource extraction pressures. Agroforestry has been promoted in Central America, initially for fuelwood and then for more diverse usages and supplemental income for smallholders.

Available with subscription or purchase

Smallholder timber plantation development in Indonesia: what is preventing progress?

Background

In the context of a supply-demand problem in Indonesia’s forestry sector in 2006 causing an increase in illegal logging, the government of Indonesia undertook measures to stem illegal logging and incentivize plantations. This paper evaluates a community timber plantation program in Indonesia called HTR (Hutan Tanaman Rakyat, community timber plantation).

Open access copy available

Smallholder plantations in the tropics – local people between outgrower schemes and reforestation programmes

Background

As part of a book on plantation forestry, this chapter focuses on smallholders and plantation forestry. The authors combine studies from Asia, Africa, and South America with their own experience and data from Brazil. The authors outline the different systems of plantation forestry for smallholders including those initiated by commericial entities such as outgrower schemes. Governments and non-profits inititate programs for ecosystem services or income generation through agroforestry. They also emphasize that smallholders intitiate their own efforts of production forests, agroforestry systems, and homegardens.

Open access copy available
Subscribe to Small and Medium Enterprises