Water

Human Hydrographical Changes Interact with Propagule Predation Behaviour in Sri Lankan Mangrove Forests

Background

This article describes the relation between propagule predators and vegetation structure and environmental factors on a forest path. It also considers how human influence affects these interactions.

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Net Primary Productivity of Two Mangrove Forest Stands on the Northwestern Coast of Sri Lanka

Background

This article compares the net primary production of an estuarine mangrove stand to an island fringing stand in Dutch Bay in northwestern Sri Lanka.

Research Goals & Methods

Net above-ground primary productivity was measured by monitoring litterfall and above-ground biomass increment between 1985 and 1987.

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The Impact of Forest Use and Reforestation on Soil Hydraulic Conductivity in the Western Ghats of India: Implications for Surface and Sub-Surface Hydrology

background

This article presents research on the surface and sub-surface permeability of degraded and restored forests and their dominant stormflow pathways  in the humid tropics of Uttar Kannada district, Karnataka, India. The authors attempt to determine to what extent field saturated hydraulic conductivity (K*) isaltered due to long-term forest degradation as compared to other studies in the humid tropics. They quantify changes in permeability following forestation of plantations and degraded landscapes and investigate the likely effect of wet-season conditions and the implications this has for predicting hydrologic consequences of forest degradation.

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Ecological Engineering for Successful Management and Restoration of Mangrove Forests

Background

This article takes a look at the reasons why many mangrove restoration projects fail, and provides key recommendations for improving the success rate of mangrove restoration projects.

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Monitoring Mangrove Forest Dynamics of the Sundarbans in Bangladesh and India using Multi-Temporal Satellite Data from 1973 to 2000

Background

In the Sundurbans of India and Bangladesh, the authors measured the extent and condition of the mangrove forest at three intervals using GeoCover datasets (Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+) with the goal of assessing the current extent of the remaining forest, measuring change in the extent of the forest in different time periods, and identifying areas of intensive deforestation or degradation and changes in patterns of canopy density.

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Disturbance, Recovery and Resilience in Tropical Forests: A Focus on the Coastal Peat Swamp Forests of Malaysian Borneo

Background

This thesis represents four years of work investigating the long-term ecological changes that have occurred in the coastal peat swamp forests of Sarawak, in Malaysian Borneo over the Late Holocene.

Research Goals & Methods

Three peat cores were extracted from sites along the coast of northern Borneo and fossil pollen and charcoal analysis performed on them in order to look at how vegetation has changed in the past, and what factors may have caused disturbances to the baseline forest communities

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The Rain–Runoff Response of Tropical Humid Forest Ecosystems to Use and Reforestation in the Western Ghats of India

Background

This study expands on a previous study in the Western Ghats of India (Uttar Kannada, Karnataka State), that suggested a greater occurrence of infiltration-excess and potentially higher streamflow in degraded and reforested areas. Analyzing rainfall–streamflow data, the authors attempt to determine the impacts of different land cover types on stream discharge hydrograph components (viz, total flow, quickflow and delayed flow), the dominant stormflow pathways, and the impact of reforestation efforts on these processes.

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Modelling the Effect of Forest Cover on Shallow Landslides at the River Basin Scale

background

This study analyzes soil models that can be used to help predict soil erosion which are useful to prioritize reforestation areas of watersheds.

Research Goals & Methods

The researchers tested the models in a river basin in Ecuador. They collected data for soil moisture/matric potential, depth, and rainfall. Vegetation (overland flow resistance coefficient) and root cohesion data were derived from the literature, as was the evapotranspiration rate.

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Management of sedimentation in tropical watersheds

Background

The sedimentation of reservoirs is a serious problem throughout the tropics, yet most attempts to control sedimentation in large river basins have not been very successful. Reliable information on erosion rates and sources of sediments has been lacking. This paper discusses some of the limitations in estimating erosion and sedimentation and encourages development of specific sediment budgets in order to extrapolate equations and generate management procedures.

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Effects of Afforestation on Water Yield: A Global Synthesis with Implications for Policy

background

This study synthesizes data  from global studies on reforested and afforested areas and compares these to grassland and shrubland areas. In particular, the authors measure response to water runoff.

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