Social Aspects

The Causes of the Reforestation in Vietnam

background

Wood exploitation and agricultural expansion led to large-scale deforestation in Vietnam.  Since the mid-1990s, forest cover in many areas has increased both in the form of natural regeneration and tree plantations. Policies such as the 1993 Land Law offered households rights to forestland and tree planting campaigns such as the Five Million Hectare Reforestation Programme made people responsible for owning and protecting forest land.

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Tree planting by small producers in the tropics: A comparative study of Brazil and Panama

Background

Forest regrowth is a widespread phenomenon across the tropical forest latitudes. Such reforestation takes place in the wake of land abandonment, occurs cyclically in a rotational agricultural system, and may result from the deliberate planting of trees by farmers. Although less extensive than successional forest regeneration, tree planting by small farmers can have potentially important environmental impacts at both the site and global scale.

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Implications of Country-Level Decisions on the Specification of Crown Cover in the Definition of Forests for Land Area Eligible for Afforestation and Reforestation Activities in the CDM

background

According to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) with the Kyoto Protocol, reforestation may only occur on land that was not forested in 1990. This article evaluates how afforestation and reforestation (A/R) through the ENCOFOR project in four countries have approached the issue of "what is forest?" The authors highlight the uncertainty in the qualifications to be forest by presenting many different national or organizational definitions of forestland. Differences in the minimum crown cover needed to be classified as forest can affect the area available for reforestation under CDM.

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Human Ecological Questions for Tropical Restoration: Experiences from Planting Native Upland Trees and Mangroves in the Philippines

Background

This article evaluates the human ecology of reforestation in the Philippines under the Bais Bay Development Action Program. Reforestation is considered in upland riparian as well as coastal mangrove areas.

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A Re-emerging Atlantic Forest? Urbanization, Industrialization and the Forest Transition in Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil

background

The Atlantic Forest region of southern Brazil has experienced rapid urbanization and industrialization in the second half of the 20th century. Trends in other regions of the world might suggest this would lead to increased forest cover in rural areas, however a developing country such as Brazil may present a different scenario.

research & methods

This research presents an analysis of forest cover change in the Atlantic forest of Santa Catarina, Brazil between 1975 and 1995/1996.

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Afforestation and Forestry Land Allocation in Northern Vietnam: Analysing the Gap Between Policy Intentions and Outcomes

background

This study looks at the policy factors surrounding the government's allocation of farmland for afforestation in northern Vietnam. This study takes place in the context of other large-scale afforestation projects conducted by governments in tropical countries, where land rights and livelihoods of local farmers can be at risk.

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Linking Reforestation Policies with Land Use Change in Northern Vietnam: Why Local Factors Matter

background

Based on a case study in Vietnam, this study seeks to understand the extent to which common state policies on land management actually contribute to reforestation. 

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The Lembo System: A Model for Agroforestry in Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems of East Kalimantan

background

This article describes the Lembo system of agroforestry, a traditional practice by the Dayak people in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. In Lembo gardens, around 127 species of woody plants are cultivated, and up to 40 different species can be found per 0.25 ha 90% of which are trees. In those gardens, there is also a large diversity of wild, uncultivated plants.

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Combinations of trees and crops in the taungya method as applied in Thailand

Background

In this article, the authors desribe the 'taungya' methods used in Thailand for reforestation and agroforestry in the 1980s. This method was primarily used under theForest Village Programme, during which landless people were given 1.6 ha of land to reforest and raise their crops.

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Reforestation and Regrowth in the Human Dominated Landscapes of South Asia

background

This study evaluates the drivers of reforestation and regrowth in South Asia using case studies and a meta-analysis of 24 papers.

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