Social Aspects

The Evolution of Reforestation in Brazil

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This article describes the history of incentives for reforestation in Brazil from the 1970s through 2001.

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The Fate of the Tropical Forest: Carbon or Cattle?

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The Clean Development Mechanism, established by the Kyoto Protocol, includes small-scale afforestation and reforestation projects as a means for participating developed countries to receive credit for emission redcutions.

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The Reforestation Value Chain for the Philippines

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This paper describes the reasons for the failure of reforestation projects in the Philippines and the potential actions to improve success. When reforestation is focused narrowly on tree plantings, they can last for a few years (mostly 3) but then are easily cut by farmers who want to resume farming, by people in need of wood, or by people feeling that the reforestation was unjust. Most reforestation projects do not have plans beyond tree establishment.

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Forest Transition in Vietnam and Bhutan: Causes and Environmental Impacts

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The authors evaluate the history of forest transition Vietnam and Bhutan.

Goals & Methods

In order to determine the change in forest cover in Vietnam, the authors collected all available land cover maps, which were then compared to official government records. Using statistical analysis, they then determined the causes of reforestation in the 1990s. For Bhutan, there was no official data analysis. The authords do provide preliminary findings using available data and literature. 

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A Tri-Partite Framework of Forest Dynamics: Hierarchy, Panarchy, and Heterarchy in the Study of Secondary Growth

Background

As tropical forests continue to experience high levels of land use and land cover change (LULCC) as well as returning secondary growth, the literature is expanding to provide theoretical explanations for these processes. This report presents a three-part framework of forest dynamics that integrates multiple theoretical explanations for LULCC and secondary growth.

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Beyond Basic Needs: Participation and Village Reforestation in Thailand

Background

At present, many federally-sponsored community reforestation projects engage  communities by hiring local labor to establish plantations with fast-growing tree species. This method ignores the importance of local knowledge and local-level accountability that improves the chances of a project's survival.

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On the Restoration of High Diversity Forests: 30 years of Experience in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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This review evaluates the restoration of Brazil's Atlantic forest by drawing from published and unpublished sources. Reforestation in Atlantic Brazil took place in phases: government-sponsored plantations predominated until 1982; a focus on native species plantations from 1982-1985; higher diversity of species used from 1985 to 2000; a focus on restoring process rather than copying the structure of natural forests from 2000-2003; and finally a conscious effort to improve intraspecific genetic diversity and seed acquisition from 2003 to today.

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Reforestation: Conclusions and Implications

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As the final chapter of the Reforesting Landscapes: Linking Pattern and Process (2010), this paper evaluates and reflects on the major research findings of the volume. It utilizes the case studies in preceeding chapters to evaluate commonalities in reforestation and to develop an interdisciplinary framework for future studies on reforestation. 

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Tropical Forest Transitions and Globalization: Neo-Liberalism, Migration, Tourism, and International Conservation Agendas

Background

Deforestation is giving way to forest regeneration in some tropical regions. This paper uses two case studies to investigate such ‘forest transitions’ in two biodiversity-rich countries, Costa Rica and Madagascar.

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Community Reforestation in the Philippines: An Evaluation of Community Contracts

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Since the 1950s, the Phillipines has lost over 15 million hectares of tropical forest. While there has been continued efforts to halt these trends and reforest the loss areas, there has been many barriers; thus the country recently turned to private and community-based efforts. This study is a review of two reforestation projects in the Philippines that were contracted through private entities rather than government agencies.

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